Table of Contents

Very Short Questions

1. Define Relational Data Model.

RDM is a type of model representing the database as a collection of relations or tables that deal with data, not objects.

2. Define Parameter and Methods.

Parameters are the passed values that are reused and methods define some functionality to act on parameters when available.

3. Write About Varray.

The PL/SQL programming language provides a data structure called the VARRAY, which can store a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type.

4. Write About Collections Objects.

Any group of individual objects which are represented as a single unit is known as the collection of the objects.

5. Short Note on Tasmania Model.

The RM/T model shows that real world entities can be modelled into objects. It defines E-relation (existence) and P-relation (properties).

6. Define Data Abstraction.

Hiding some complex details so that the user can focus on what’s more important and needed is data abstraction.

7. What is SQL, PL/SQL?

SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data in RDBMS. PL/SQL is an extension to SQL for OODBMS manipulation and more powerful queries.

8. Define Large Objects (LOBS) .

LOBs are somewhat a solution to storing large complex data, supporting 8 to 128 TB storage along with navigation pointers.

9. Difference between Class and Objects.

Class is a group of similar objects. Objects are instantiation of classes. Objects could be any entity such as pen, book, computer, etc.

10. Define about DEREF.

DEREF is a keyword in PL/SQL that is used to get to or fetch object instances to which it is pointed towards.

11. Brief on IS-A Relationship.

IS A relationship is an object hierarchy concept where one class is an instance of another class. They define superclass and subclasses. For example, in generalization, a student is a person and employee is a person.

12. Explain About UML.

Unified Modeling Language is a standard set for designing software processes and databases. For example, class diagrams, state diagrams, etc.

13. Write about  IS DANDLING .

IS DANDLING represents a pointer to nothing.

14. Define object type and view.

An object view is a mechanism to create a virtual object table whereas object type is a wrapper that converts non-object type to object type data.

15. Explain E-R Model.

E-R Model explains the entities of the real world and the system along with relation associations and their attributes.

16. Define Procedural Abstractions.

In process abstraction, details of the threads of execution are not visible to the consumer of the process. It is similar to data abstraction but works with methods/functions instead of data.

17. What is a Large Object Locator?

It is a pointer to some required data. When LOB can not be stored in a database due to large size, greater than 4k, then only the locators/pointers are stored.

18. What is Query Language and PL/SQL?

Query Language is a standard given to manipulate databases and objects. PL/SQL is an extension to SQL for OODBMS manipulation and more powerful queries.

19. Write about many-to-many relationships with examples.

When multiple instances of object A are linked to multiple instances of object B and vice versa, it is called many to many relationship. For example, Tshirt can be of the men or women category. Men or women categories may be S, M, L, XL sizes. those sizes could be of many colors. 

20. Define interface. 

Interfaces define methods and parameter types but do not populate the data itself. Classes that implement interfaces override the methods defined.

21. What is an E-R diagram?

ER diagram is a UML diagram in ER model that shows entities, attributes and their relation associations.

22. Define SYS_TYPEID with syntax.

SYS_TYPEID is a query to find out or return the type identity/identifier of required data or object.  SYS_TYPEID (VALUE(name)) 

23. Define collection bag.

Common attribute bhako data collection huncha, list ma common characters ko set huncha, objects ma cha attributes nai collect huncha

24. Define Data Types

Data type defines what particular type some data or object is. For example, lexical classes such as string, int, cchar, etc. are data types.

25. Define Whole part Relationship.

Whole/Part Relationships. Whole/part relationships are when one class represents the whole object and other classes represent parts

26. Define BOOCH Notation.

A way of capturing/representing  the relationships in an OO design, ina different format such as cloud symbol for object.

27. Explain About Inheritance.

=Inheritance is the mechanism of deriving subclass from superclass by attaining some or all attributes of superclass. For example, generalization supports inheritance.

28. Explain TREAT Function.

The TREAT function is used to check whether a base class can be treated as its subtypes or not.

29. What is Large object

LONG and LONG ROW used to support only upto 2GB of data. Objects that are of large sizes, extending from the concept of LONG and LONG ROW are large objects. They are complex collections such as large binary values, character sets, etc.

30. Define Semantic Database

Providing a semantic view to database designers and other users, Semantic Database is similar to relational database but easier manipulation.

31. Define Object identifier.

=It is a unique long term name given to an object so that it can be accessed unambiguously with the use of pointers.

Short Question Answer

1. Write briefly about ER Diagram. Design Complete ER Diagram for College Management System.

2. Explain Conceptual modelling of UML. Also Explain UML approach for Software Architecture design.

The conceptual model of UML contains the fundamentals of UML. The conceptual model consists of three parts. They are:

  • Building blocks of UML (syntax/vocabulary)
  • Rules (semantics)
  • Common Mechanisms
3. Write comparative view of Relational Database, Extended Relational Database and Object-oriented Database system.

4. Write a comparative Analysis of Structured, unstructured, and Semi-Structured data.

5. Write About Object Table and Object View, Define REF function.

An object view is a mechanism to create a virtual object table. In an object table, each row represents an object. REF defines the pointer to some object. 

6. What is data abstraction? Explain the different levels of data abstraction with diagrams.

7. Write about Network Model and Hierarchical Model and Its difference.

8. Explain different types of methods found in object oriented systems. 

Types of method found in object oriented system.

  • Interface Methods
  • Constructors
  • Implementation Methods
9. Explain Aggregation and Decomposition with example.

A decomposition function takes data from one field, breaks up the data into smaller pieces, and assigns the pieces to different columns in the staging table. An aggregation function takes data from multiple fields, aggregates the data, and assigns the aggregated data to a single column in the staging table.

10. Define Objects Views and Explain TREAT ,SYS_TYPEID and UTL_REF.

UTL_REF defines actions to be performed on the mentioned object

11. Explain Creating Object View with a suitable example.

By using object views, you can create virtual object tables from data – of either built-in or user-defined types – stored in the columns of relational or object tables in the database. Object views provide the ability to offer specialized or restricted access to the data and objects in a database. For example, you might use an object view to provide a version of an employee object table that doesn’t have attributes containing sensitive data and doesn’t have a deletion method.

Long Questions Answer

1. List mandatory features of Object oriented systems and explain any three of them.
  • Object identity : 
  • Object classes: 
  • Inheritance: 
  • Polymorphism: 
  • Encapsulation: 
  • Security: 
  • Persistence: 
  • Extensibility: 
  • Object Type: 
2. Define and Explain OODBMS, Compare advantage and Disadvantage of OODBMS.


  • Complex data handling
  • Real time data and object manipulation
  • Serve in large CAD/CAM projects
  • Extended features than RDBMS


  • Query processing rate is high
  • Complex operations with multiple identity is difficult
  • Bulk operation may be stressful
  • Slowed down speed of operation
3. Mention the features of Object oriented System and explain any two of them in brief.

Mandatory, Optional and Open


  • Object identity
  • Object classes
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Encapsulation
  • Security
  • Persistence
  • Extensibility
  • Object Type


  • Versioning
  • Type checking and interface
  • Multiple inheritance
  • Distributed database
  • Design transaction
4. Write about Large Objects and Explain different kind of LOBS with Example.

LOBs are somewhat a solution to storing large complex data, supporting 8 to 128 TB storage along with navigation pointers.

  • Internal
    • Binary LOB : int char
    • Character LOB: texts
    • National Character LOB
  • External
    • BFILE: when internal lobs are way too lage, more than 4k then only pointers are stored in db. The actual file remains in or out of OS. Those pointer storage is BFILE.
5. Explain in Brief Booch notation used for representing classes and class relationships. 

A way of capturing/representing  the relationships in an OO design, ina different format such as cloud symbol for object. It has been replaced by UML diagrams

6. Define and Explain (OODBMS) object Oriented database management System Architecture.

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