1. Where would you normally find the following in a department store?
  • women’s clothes
  • restaurants
  • cosmetics
  • furniture
  • food hall
  • famous brands-watches, jewellery, and bags
  • How does a department store decide what to put on each floor?


  • women’s clothes: 1st and 2nd floors
  • restaurants: near the top of the store
  • cosmetics: ground floor, near entrance
  • furniture: near the top of the store
  • famous brands – watches, jewellery, and bags: ground floor

Normally a department store decides what to put on each floor for the business perspective and the convenience of the buyers. The highly required or demanded items are mostly placed at easy access places i.e. ground floor or at the entrance. Similarly, jewellery and cosmetics items are set there. The furniture, restaurants, etc. are placed at the top floor where only required and selected people reach. If people are with enough leisure time they wander around restaurants, observing desired furniture. Most of people are busy so in the rush hours they must decide at once glancing good decoration so that they can buy instantly. Accordingly department stores set and run their business of various services.

2. Do you have any experience of becoming a ‘victim of marketing psychology’?

Yes, anyone can automatically be a victim marketing psychology one way or the other. It is because everything is designed in accordance to impress and lure humans’ (customers’) psychology in the systematic supermarkets or shopping centers. I have got similar experience when I visited Bhatbhateni Supermarket at Khashibazar, Kathmandu.

I had been to that department store on its opening ceremony, I got similar experience while observing goods and buying them. As I entered the main entrance, I always turned right it is my normal habit to do so. I got impressions of things displayed on my right. I also got the actual adjustment light and walking steps to have positive attractions to buy goods.

In going inside, I found nothing kept but an open space that I understood as Transition Zone from where I could see various displayed things. I had to purchase a jean to my sister so she had to try it. The trial room was at the back corner. As I guided her upto the trial room, I got impression of so many things. When sister came out wearing it with smile I made my mind to buy it. As we paid the cost and march further, we smelt scent and aroma of cooking snacks. My sisters insisted to have sea momo there. I was compelled to go there and we had it. I was totally lured by all decoration, designation, display and the shopping mechanism. From clothes to food everything was available. Lastly we parted paying parking charge at the basement.

While coming back to home, I felt I was cheated and I was the victim of marketing psychology. I also was impressed by addidas shoes that was kept at outer display as the branded product. On going home I remembered that shoes and internally planned to buy them. This experience proved me that we often become the victim of marketing psychology where everything is modeled and designed accordingly.

3. Read the text and answer the questions.

Sensation transference

This concept was coined by Louis Cheskin, one of the great figures of twentieth centaury marketing. Cheskin believed that most of us don’t make a distinction between the product and the way it looks or is packaged. In the 1940s margarine was not popular and Cheskin wanted to find out why- at that time margarine was white. So Cheskin coloured it yellow to look like butter. He invited a group of women to an event and served butter and margarine in exactly the same way. The margarine was just as popular as the butter.

  1. Do you agree with Cheskin’s theory?
  2. Can you think of an example of illustrate the theory?


  1. I totally agree with Cheskin’s theory. Modern consumers are very much fashionable to buy the things with very attractive packaging and binding. How the products come to customers’ hand is determined by its packaging, coloring and carriable with special quality. If the products are made customers friendly and catchy in coloring and packaging, they purchase them instantly. So cosmetic products are kept in the decorated shelves with brand colours. Some products i.e. Cocacola is kept in the stall with its brand colour and very much impressive displays. We can encounter a number of experiences related to this theory.
  2. There are a number of examples found in the markets related to Cheskin’s theory. When I visited a jewellery shop to buy necklace to my would be sister in-law I found the impressive glasses under which it was kept. The display coloration, shelf, box it is kept are totally matched according to gold color. I also found the golden light that could properly match to brighten the gold kept inside. The lights and shelves were totally different from a stationery shop or any general shops. Similarly, I have impression of ‘Jeermasina Rice’ with its outer display cooked rice image and its illustration of taste. The normal packages are less impressive to the colorful and image printed packages. The everyday eating junk foods i.e. noodles are in colorful and decorative outlook of the packages so that customers can buy instantly.
4. Write your opinion in the following topics.

You might think margarine was butter if it was packaged in the same way.

  • Supermarkets could attract more customers by using less packaging.
  • Packaging can enhance the value of a product.
  • It must be very hard for producers of well-known products to redesign their packaging.


  • This age is the age of commerce and trade. Any products can be produced in any sizes and quantity to bring upto the customers. In this regard, deceiving to customers in the name of color, design, and brand is very common. I also think that margarine could be butter if it was packaged in the same way. People don’t bother to investigate what content is kept inside and its level of quality. Customers surfacely determined looking outlet of the products. If any product i.e. margarine is designed and packaged in the same pattern as real butter, people hardly raise questions rather easily be befooled with the psychology that it is real butter indeed.
  • Obviously most of the supermarkets could attract more customers by using packaging. At present everything that becomes carriable and handy which is packaged. It looks attractive and very suitable when customers encounter any goods covered in attractive warping to some extent they desire to purchase them. It is not the case that happens in particular place rather it is everywhere and every time. In supermarkets goods should be on display. If it is covered in papers and any type of packages, there is less impression towards the goods. Packaged goods are necessary but too much packaging is not very much fruitful. If customers get chance to buy by choosing goods among many, they can buy in open sale display. From economical perspective and environmental perspective proper amount of packaging is needed not everything that is kept for sale in the supermarkets.
  • ‘First impression is the last impression’ is a very popular but common saying applied in everyone’s life. In the supermarket if the things are put on sale or displays with attractive packaging they will positively impact the psychology of customers. something seems cute and attractive, carriable every thing is felt according to packaging patterns, the things become very impressive and mind drawing of the customers. To great extent the packaging plays a vital role in convincing customers towards buying products. From very common goods to very useful house appliance the role of packaging is very significant one.
  • Outwardly it sounds good that it must be very hard for producers of well-known products to redesign their packaging, the truth is different. Most of the established companies have used the techniques and technology to revitalizing and creating innovation in the overall designing and outlets of their products. Frequently, there are changes in the designs of the packaging; which is more comfortable and user friendly. To catch the pace of competitive market the established companies have brought dynamic patterns of product designs. For examples, Uniliver Company has frequently changed its Sunsilk shampoo in different boxes, coloration and shapes. So for the marketing strategies the branded companies have used some risks of redesigning, packaging of products to bring more market and large quantity sales.
5. What do you think are the positive and negative effects of sport? Read the introduction to an article on sport and aggression from a text book on psychology.

Many studies have found that sport can lead to aggressive and anti-social behaviour. Others argue that it channels aggressiveness, and has the positive effect of leading to more assertive and pro-social behaviour.


On reading the introduction to an article the positive and negative effects of sport, we can enlist following points in this regard.

One positive aspect of sport is the sense of competition that always leads on towards achieving goal. If one has competitive attitude, he/she is motivated towards goal. Secondly, this notion encourages to work in team spirit. If we all work together, any tough things become easier. Mostly, people who are involving in sports are active and live with fitting physique. Some more good qualities they develop are very much punctual, dedicated and cheerful.

On the other side, sports may generate some negative qualities too. Mostly, such people are aggressive in nature due to the sense of competition. In the name of competition sometimes they may forget about relation, friendship and mutual understanding. However, due to fear of loosing game, status, level, sport persons are aggressive, angry and violent. Involving in sport one has to spend most of time to sharpen this skill no social function, no holiday, no family or friends nor get-together. Though there is charm of name and fame, person is always sweaty, dusty and tiresome in playing different games as tournaments.

6. Write any five words prefixed with self.


  • self-esteem
  • self-awareness
  • self-reliance
  • self-discipline
  • self-absorption
7. Complete the sentences with a suitable verb
  1. ……………. we say six for the drink?
  2. Actually, 5.00 p.m………………. be better for me.
  3. Could you ……………… 4.00 p.m.?
  4. I’m not sure about 4.00, I’ll……………. to check the flight time.
  5. If it’s OK with you, I think I’d prefer to …………….. it 5.00 p.m.
  6. It as though I’m going to be busy all morning.
  7. OK, that …………….. like a good idea.
  8. Would Wednesday morning at 9.00 ……………. you?


  1. shall
  2. would
  3. manage/ make
  4. have
  5. make
  6. looks
  7. sounds
  8. suit
8. Which of these words cannot be preceded by self-?
  • absorption
  • awareness
  • discipline
  • esteem
  • competence
  • reliance
  • dedication


Competence, dedication

9. Write sentences that include at least four of the following:
  • faint-hearted
  •  frighten
  • heart-searching
  • heart-stopping
  • hype
  • hyperactive megabucks


  • The plan is not for the faint-hearted (=people with small gut and are not brave) people.
  • His business has achieved megabucks profit.
  • Children normally frighten with darkness.
  • Hyperactive person has achieved high level of progress in any field.

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