Very Short Answer

1. Point out the different levels of technology.

The different levels of technology are listed below.

  • Manual technology
  • Mechanized technology
  • Automated technology
  • Computerized technology
  • Robotized technology
2. Point out the components of technological environment.

The components of technological environment are as follows.

  • Levels of technology
  • Pace of technology change
  • Technology transfer
  • Research and development budget:
3. Define technology.

Technology refers to the practical aspects of science. It is the translation of scientific knowledge into method of production. It is the combination of equipment and skills used in design, production and distribution of goods and services.

4. Enlist different levels of technology.

The different levels of technology are listed below.

  • Manual technology
  • Mechanized technology
  • Automated technology
  • Computerized, technology
  • Robotized technology
5. What you mean by technological environment? Write.

Technological environment refers to all the technical surroundings that influence business activities. The components of technological environment are level of technology, pace of technological change, technology transfer and R&D budget.

6. What do you mean by technology transfer?

Technology transfer means technology imported from technologically advanced foreign countries. The drivers of technology transfer are multinational companies, technical assistance by the foreign countries, donor alkup assisted projects, and international trade.

7. Make a short note on human factor and technology.

Human factor is the study of the interrelationship between humans, the tools and equipment they use in the workplace, and the environment in which they work. The knowledge, skills and abilities of human factors largely determine the technological efficiency.

8. Write the long-term vision of science and technology policy.

The long-term vision of the science and technology policy is to uplift the living standard of the people of Nepal through research and development, and improvement, expansion and utilization of proper S & T in a sustainable way and to utilize S & T sector towards the national goal of poverty alleviation by mobilizing physical, human and academic foundation of S & T through creative and institutional development.

9. Write the objectives of information technology policy, 2009.

The objectives of information technology policy, 2009 are as follows:

  • To make information technology accessible to the general public and  increase employment through this means,
  • To build a knowledge-based society, and
  • To establish knowledge-based industries.

Short Answer Question

1. Explain the current levels of technology used in Nepalese business.

Technology is the practice of putting the knowledge into practice. The development of industry and business in any country largely depends on the adoption and development of technology. The level of technology in Nepalese business may be studied under the following two headings.

Traditional Technology

The technologies that are in use since a long back are called traditional ar and technologies. They are based on local skills and knowledge. The different types of traditional technologies in Nepal are;

  • Metallurgy is the oldest technology in Nepal. It has been used in images and statues.
  • Pottery is another traditional technology used for making clay pots using wheel.
  • Nepal has manual based technologies in textile and woollen carpets manufacturing.
  • The architecture based on culture and tradition can be found in temples, pagodas, stupas, palaces, public places and even in private houses.
  • Nepalese paper is manufactured with a unique hand based technology.
  • Different types of traditional technologies are still in use in Nepal for preparing and preserving food items like pickle, gundruk, dhido, and many more.
  • Nepal has some unique technology in medicine normally based on herbs and domestic items.
  • In agriculture, technologies like plough, spade for plantation and harvesting are used.
  • In construction also, Nepal has a unique technology. Houses are constructed using mud, bamboo, dry grasses, and other locally available materials.

Modern Technology

The types of modern technology used in Nepal may be mentioned in the following points.

  • Mechanized technology is found to be used in garment industry, grill industry, herbs processing industry, soap industry and tea industry.
  • Automatic technology is used by textile factory, printing press, leather, rice mills, biscuit, and cigarette.
  • Iron industry, cement industry, soft drink industry, beer industry, liquor ste industry, hydroelectricity project, telecommunication, etc use computerized technology.
  • The use of robotized technology has not been found in Nepal so far.
  • There is growing use of information technology in Nepal. Financial seu institutions, educational institutions and hospitals are found to use information technology extensively.
  • In agriculture, advanced technologies like bio and tissue culture technologies are used.
  • The government offices are also found to use information technology in their operation.
2. Explain the effects of technology on business.

A business should make technology as an important part of its operation since it exerts a number of positive effects. However, it is not free from limitations or negative effects.

Positive Effects

  • Productivity increase: Technological progress makes possible to produce more from existing inputs or produce more from less input. This causes saving of inputs for the production of other goods. Technological progress helps to make other inputs more productive. It increases productivity per labor and also the common productivity. Thus, if the appropriate technology is used it improves the productivity of business.
  • Increase in competitiveness: Technology facilitates higher production within a short period of time and quality products, which increases the competitiveness of the business organizations. None of the business can survive and grow without adopting advanced technology in this competitive age.
  • Cost reduction: Automation and improved production technology tend to utilize the idle raw material and time, which would be destroyed if used hand or traditional technology. Technology also fosters the speed of production process that leads in reducing the cost.
  • Innovation: Technology facilitates the easier production process. It has opened a new way to produce new product and innovation. Technology has identified the goods or services with competitive advantages. For example; to computer technology brought e-mail and internet and the business of el computer has started.
  • Profit or increased organizational value: Demand of the goods and services increases due to the quality product in a short period. This leads to increase in profit, which in turn increases the value of the organization.
  • Opportunities: Technology provides opportunities to the business. Different opportunities may arise in the market. Only those organizations grab those opportunities which can adopt appropriate technology. Others loose those opportunities, which can not adopt accordingly.
  • Technological development: Technology provides benefits to the organization that lead the organization to adopt more advanced technology. It facilitates entrance and development of new technology, which increase the > strength and reputation of the organization.

Negative Effects

  • Burden in capital: Technology needs huge investment of capital. It will be expensive to the organizations and thus can not contribute the capital in the technology.
  • Threat of innovation: Technology gets changing day by day. Innovation of new technology may replace the existing technology even in a short period. So, there is always risk to adopt new technology.
  • Increase in cost: Technology needs repair and maintenance within a regular interval to keep it functioning. That increases cost of production. If the technology become absolute, it would be very hard to bear for the organization.
  • Need of skilled manpower: Skilled manpower is needed to operate new technology. Nepalese government sector’s banking organizations are facing that problem with the development of computer technology in private sector banks.
3. Explain in brief the different components of technological environment.

Technology involves the practical aspects of science. It may take the form of tools, materials and systems. It translates the scientific knowledge into method of production. Hence, it refers to the ways to convert the organizational inputs into output.

Technological environment refers to all the technical surroundings that influence business activities. There are different levels of technology.

Levels of technology: It refer to the degree of sophistication of the technology. The levels may be manual, mechanized, automated, computerized and robotized technology. The different levels of technology are mentioned below.

  • Manual technology: It is the simplest form of technology. It is based on human being. It is a traditional technology. Simple tools are used. Production volume is low. The overall cost of production is high. In Nepal, the cottage and small scale industries still use manual technology.
  • Mechanised technology: With the advancement of science and technology, many machines are invented. Mechanised technology is machine based. The production and capacity utilization are high. The quality also improves. However, the investment and maintenance costs are high.
  • Automated technology: It uses self-controlled machines. It is widely used in modern industries. The production and productivity is high. It is mostly used in the industries involved in the production of standardized products. The number of workers is not high. The investment is very high.
  • Computerised technology: It uses computer based sophisticated machines. Digital technology is used. Investment is high. It requires very few employees to run the technology.
  • Robotised technology: It uses robots in place of human being. It is mostly used in hazardous conditions. The productivity and quality are superior. However, investment is very high.

Pace of technology change: It is the stage and speed of the technological change. The change seems very low in Nepalese organizations. Nepalese organizations are not found to adopt the modern technologies in timely manner. The technologies that have been obsolete in other countries are mostly used in Nepal.

Technology transfer: It implies technology imported from foreign countries. The drivers of technology transfer are multinational companies, technical assistance by the foreign countries, donor assisted projects, and international trade. Multinational companies are playing an important role in technology transfer because they invest abroad to expand production, marketing and research activities.

Research and development budget: It is the budget by government or business organizations for technological adaptation, up-gradation and development. R & D budget of the government as well as the private sector is very low in Nepal.

4. Write how technology and business are related to each other.

Technology plays an important role in business. Use of technology in businesses has become a common phenomenon. Technology plays a key role in the growth of business around the world. Businesses use technology in production, marketing and distribution, accounting, human resource, and research and development. Without the growth of technology, the idea of Businesses can internationalize their operations through the use of the internet. Technology globalization wouldn’t come in the present state. has allowed businesses to grow and expand in different ways.

Technology expands the reach and efficiency of internal and external business technology, small companies can often compete with larger firms in communication. It allows opportunities to optimize production. Using proper to compete with industry leaders on production efficiency. Technology also operational efficiency. Manufacturers constantly look to upgrade technology makes the process of selling to and servicing customers much more efficient as well. It is used to organize items systematically in a warehouse or storage room and manage accounting and finance tasks. The usefulness of technology in business may further be mentioned in the following points.

  • Productivity enhancement
  • Competitive advantage
  • Innovation
  • Increase in profit due to lower cost
  • Customer value
5. Write how human factor and technology are related to each other.

Human Factor

Human factor is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Human factor contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. It involves the scientific application of knowledge with the aim of making products, systems, services and environments safe, efficient and easy to use. It examines the relationship between human beings and the systems with which they interact. The aim is to enhance efficiency, creativity, productivity and job satisfaction. Hence, human factor plays a crucial role in determining the technological aspect of a country.

Technology

Change in existing technology affects other aspects considerably. When new production and distribution systems emerge, changes are required in workforce structure and skills. For example, e-commerce would displace many sales persons, workers may be thrown away from factory by robotized technology.

Relationship between Human Factor and Technology

For the management and operation of technology, the role of human factor is very high. Their knowledge, skills and abilities largely determine the technological efficiency. Similarly, the effectiveness of technology also rests on its selection, adoption and maintenance. For this, the knowledge and judgment of human factor is crucial.

The growing complexity of technologies makes the human element more important. A human factor is a key factor for the commercial success of any technology. Irrespective of sophistication in technology, humans are ultimately responsible for ensuring the success and safety of any technology. Hence, human must continue to be knowledgeable, flexible, dedicated, and efficient to exercise good judgment. For this, investments in training, equipment, and systems are required to develop human factor to cope with the evolution of technology. Technology without utmost consideration of the human factor is worthless.

6. Explain some notable features of the Electronic Transaction Act, 2006.

The following are some of the notable features of electronic transaction act, 2006.

  • Commercial code for e-commerce transactions: The ETA defines the rights and obligations of the transacting parties and addresses the legal aspects of electronic contracts, use of specified security procedures (including digital signatures) and concerns for authentication and non-repudiation.
  • Use of electronic applications for public sector: In order to facilitate the use of electronic transactions in the public sector, the ETA contains an omnibus provision through which government departments and statutory boards can accept electronic filings and electronic versions of documents without having to amend their respective Acts.
  • Liability of network service providers: To create a transparent legal environment conducive to the growth of network service providers, the ETA specifies that network service providers will not be subject to criminal or civil liability for such third-party material, in relation to which they are merely the host.
  • Provision for the development of security procedures such as Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and biometrics: the ETA provides for the appointment of a Controller to enable regulations to be made for the licensing and 10 accreditation of specified security procedure providers, such as certification authorities (CAs), and including recognition of foreign CAS.

Long Answer Question

1. Mention the vision, objectives and strategies of the Science and Technology Policy of Nepal.

The Science and Technology Policy, 2005 of Nepal aims to alleviate poverty by uplifting the living standard of the people and build national capacity by strengthening the S & T sector.

Vision

The vision of science and technological policy is as under.

  • To uplift the living standard of the people of Nepal through research and to development, and improvement, expansion and utilization of proper S & T in a sustainable way
  • To utilize the S & T sector towards the national goal of poverty alleviation by mobilizing the physical, human and academic foundation of S & T through creative and institutional development.

Objectives

The main objectives of science and technology are as follows:

  • To contribute towards the national goal of poverty alleviation by uplifting the living standard of the people of Nepal through the development and utilization of S & T
  • To increase national capacity through institutional strengthening of S & T sector, and human resource development and utilization
  • To increase competitive capacity of production and service sectors through research and development of S & T, and utilization of suitable technology

Strategies

The strategies adopted by science and technology policy are:

  • To institutionalize the participation of stakeholders in the development of the S & T sector with the mobilization of the academic and private sector.
  • To mobilize available resources in the S & T sector to the maximum extent, and establish additional new structures and organizations as per the need.
  • To encourage Universities, science institutes and individuals involved in research works and produce high-level scientists by giving high priority to S&T subjects in the academic curriculum up to the highest level.
  • To enhance the quality of hydrology and meteorology through the use of modern technology.
  • To integrate research and development works with competitive capacity development in the S & T sector.

All groups, regions, communities, and ethnic groups will be included on non the basis of gender equality and inclusion while formulating and implementing policies and programs.

2. Mention the vision, objectives, strategies and policies of the Information Technology Policy, 2009.

The Information Technology Policy, 2009 has been brought with the aim of making information technology accessible to the general public and to create knowledge based society.

Vision

“To place Nepal on the global map of information technology within the next five years” is the vision of information technology policy.

Objectives

  • To make information technology accessible to the general public and increase employment through this means,
  • To build a knowledge-based society, and To establish knowledge-based industries.

Strategies

Some of the strategies adopted by technological policy are as under.

  • The government shall act as a promoter, facilitator and regulator.
  • High priority shall be accorded to research, development and extension of information technology with participation of private sectors.
  • Competent manpower shall be developed with the participation of both the public and the private sectors for the sustainable development and extension of information technology.
  • Domestic and foreign investment shall be encouraged for the development of information technology and the related infrastructures
  • Nepal shall be placed on the global map of information technology..
  • E-commerce shall be promoted with legal provisions.
  • Information technology shall be used to assist e-governance.
  • Information technology shall be applied for rural development.
  • Information technology industry shall be promoted.
  • Speedy and qualitative service shall be made available at a reasonable cost by creating a healthy and competitive atmosphere among information technology service providers.
  • Computer education shall be incorporated in the academic curriculum starting from the school level.

 Policies

The following are some of policies proposed for the implementation of the afore said strategies:

  • To declare information technology sector a priority sector,
  • To adopt one window system for the development of information technology,
  • To priorities research and development in the field of information technology,
  • To create an atmosphere conducive to attracting investment in the private sector, keeping in view the private sector’s role in the development of information technology,
  • To provide Internet facilities gradually to all Village Development Committees of the country,
  • To assist educational institutions and encourage domestic and foreign training to fulfil the requirement of appropriate manpower at various levels pertaining to information technology,
  • To computerize the system in all government offices and build their websites for the flow of information,
  • To encourage the use of computers in private sectors,
  • To develop physical and virtual information technology parks at various the places with private sector’s participation in the development of information technology,
  • To use information technology to promote e-commerce, e-education, e health among others, and to transfer technology to rural areas.
  • To establish a National Information Technology Centre,

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