1. Here are four headlines with ambiguous meanings. Expand them in two ways: first to indicate the intended meaning, then to Indicate the unintended ambiguous meaning.


1. Intended meaning: Police officers have found a safe hidden under a blanket.

  • Unintended meaning: Police officers have been found safe under a blanket.

2. Intended meaning: Rail passengers have been affected by the cancellation of trains.

  • Unintended meaning: Some passengers have been hit (run over) by trains that were cancelled.

3. Intended meaning: Bureaucratic ‘red tape’ is delaying the opening of new bridge.

  • Unintended meaning: Pieces of red-coloured tape are supporting a new bridge.

4. Intended meaning: The police have shot a man who was carrying a knife.

  • Unintended meaning: The police have shot a man by using a knife.
2. Rewrite the following sentences making the verbs in bold in passive form.
  1. Criminals carry out most bank robberies not with a gun and a mask, but with a computer and a keyboard.
  2. Security concerns didn’t worry our parents’ generation as much as they do us.
  3. They will use more and more sophisticated technology to counter ID theft.
  4. In fifty years’ time we’ll be using computer systems that are completely secure.
  5. Always make certain that you back up computer files on a separate and removable computer drive.
  6. Governments and others have used concerns over security to increase their control over the public.
  7. Over the last few years government have been introducing more and more serious security measures.


  1. Most bank robberies are carried out not with a gun and a mask, but with a computer and a keyboard.
  2. Our parents’ generation wasn’t worried by security concerns as much as we are.
  3. More and more sophisticated technology will be used to counter ID theft.
  4. In fifty years’ time computer systems will be used that are completely secure.
  5. Always make certain that computer files are backed up on a separate and removable computer drive.
  6. Concerns over security have been used by governments and others to increase their control over the public.
  7. Over the last few years more and more serious security measures have been introduced by governments.
3. Choose the correct word in these sentences.
  1. I’m always very excited/ nervous when I get on a plane, because I’m worried that something might happen.
  2. There were long queues at the check-in desk, but the officials checked/controlled/inspected things very well.
  3. The police monitored the actions/activities of the suspects twenty-four hours a day.
  4. Cities rely on surveillance/surveys to maintain security, but at the same time try to avoid/prevent limiting people’s personal/personnel/ freedom.
  5. The IT department have tried to stop hackers/hijackers on a number of events/ occasions, but actually/currently there is no 100% effective/efficient system available although may be there will be in the future.


  1. nervous
  2. controlled
  3. activities
  4. surveillance, avoid, personal
  5. hackers, occasions, currently, effective
4.  Write sentences using the following words.

excited: I was very excited watching movie, ‘KGF’.

inspected: The crime is being inspected by Home Ministry.

checked: Custom men checked all luggage’s at border

actions: Every action has certain result.

surveys: Detailed surveys should be conducted before starting any business.

prevent: We should prevent violence against women from every family.

personnel: Most of the personnel’s have become corrupted.

hijackers: The hijackers often hijack airplanes.

 events: There are many historical events took place in 2072 (BS).

actually: Actually, he is not involved in crime.

efficient: One must be well efficient on his profession.

5. Write about a Project Review Meeting for a project related to your works. Use these notes to help you.
  1. What was the project? What were its objectives?
  2. Was it over-budget or under-budget, and what were the possible reasons for this?
  3. Think of a crisis that occurred on the project and how you dealt with it.
  4. What communication channels did you use? Were they effective?
  5. Is there anyone who should be especially congratulated?


  1. Our project was Business Awareness Program. It was to make a research on how much percentage of people invest money in business with a complete proposal or pre-planning in Dhading district. It was to promote and encourage the entrepreneurs to have healthy investment and better in time profit from their business. If this mission was successful, it was obvious that, most of business persons, farmers and factory owners would be benefited well. So, the major objectives of our project were conducted for 6 months in Dhading Beshi and its surroundings.
  2. It was obviously under-budget project. Actually, run under the Chamber of Commerce, Dhading though, the government had allocated the limited amount of the budget that could hardly accomplish the project missions. The research members were provided just transportation but not daily allowances for the work. To meet all requirements and complete the project the private sectors also donated willingly. To draft its all aspects and collecting data and sampling all stationery expenses were also not included in the master budget.
  3. The area of Dhading Beshi and its neighbouring localities were sampled to be studied about. It was very difficult to bring the people to fill up the questionnaires and get appropriate information. Due to fear or what I don’t know most people who had involved in any business like running hotels, restaurants, and furniture industry, bricks industry, farming and others were unwilling to run cooperate us. But we made a temporary office at the center and started to make good affinity with all business houses. Communication problem, unwilling to participate problem, not giving exact. information like problems occurred on the process but we carried out the project by hook and .by crook.
  4. To do this project, mostly face to face communication and information channel were used. More than this a local FM Radio Dhading Beshi also broadcast this information/ news frequently. Moreover, the locally published newspaper also supported to bring better communication among all. Basically, for the get together and ups and downs, Dhading Beshi Municipality Office became real source of information along with the office of Dhading Chember of Commerce.
  5. To accomplish this project, there appeared many persons and departments as the character of honour and congratulations because their efforts and supports were invaluable. The local FM, local newspaper; the Municipality and its members, the office of Chambers of Commerce and its personnel and local people and industrialists were the characters of congratulations under this course.
6. Select the correct options to express regrets and wishes.
  1. I wish I started/had started learning English when I was younger.
  2. I wish it rained/would rain; all the grass is going brown.
  3. I wish I didn’t/wouldn’t have to go the meeting tomorrow.
  4. If only you told/had told/would tell me you weren’t coming to the meeting yesterday.
  5. Today he came on time but I wish he would come/had come on time to every meeting.


  1. had started
  2. would rain
  3. didn’t
  4. had told
  5. would come
7. Convert these active sentences into the Passive.
  1. We’ll do it tomorrow.
  2. They are working on it now.
  3. She had already built it.
  4. He has been studying it all morning.
  5. They hired him last year.
  6. Oh no! My computer’s crashed!
  7. They don’t speak English there.


  1. It will be done tomorrow.
  2. It is being worked on now.
  3. It had already been built.
  4. It has been studied all morning. (possible but unusual)
  5. He was hired last year. 6. not possible
  6. English isn’t spoken here.
8. Write answers to the sentences below. Follow the instructions in italics. Make sure you respond with an appropriate level of formality.
  1. Hey, fancy going to the cinema tonight? decline invitation, give excuse
  2. Would you mind doing a presentation on how the tour has gone? accept, ask for details
  3. We would like to have the pleasure of your company for dinner on… accept
  4. I was wondering whether you might be free next week to come over to our office to discuss the proposal. accept and suggest a day and time
  5. Thank you for all your hard work. express appreciation
  6. I would be interested in hearing your opinion of the venues for the concert. express disapproval


  1. Sorry, I’m afraid I’ve got to study tonight, maybe some other time.
  2. No problem. What exactly would you like me to cover?
  3. I would be most honoured to accept your kind invitation.
  4. I would be very please to accept your invitation to discuss the proposal. Might I suggest Tuesday at 15:00?
  5. Thank you. That’s very kind.
  6. To be honest I didn’t think much of them.

Didn't Find Any Subjects/Contents?

Click on the contribute button to contribute subjects materials on Study Notes Nepal.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Join Our Facebook Community Group

Study Notes Nepal