Rights Management

Rights management is a term for control systems that allow a rights owner to control over information immediately. It enables publishers of information to control what recipients can do with it in order to prevent intellectual property theft, stop unauthorized sharing and piracy.

Digital rights management (DRM)

It is a systematic approach to copy right protection for digital media. The purpose of DRM is to prevent unauthorized redistribution of digital media and restrict the ways consumers can copy content they’ve purchased.

DRM products were developed in response to the rapid increase in online piracy of commercially marketed material, which proliferated through the widespread use of peer-to-peer file exchange programs.

Typically, DRM is implemented by embedding code that prevents copying, specifies a time period in which the content can be accessed, or limits the number of devices the media can be installed on.

Android is an open mobile phone platform. To accommodate value-added services such as selling wallpapers, ringtones, applications, and games on Android phones, it is essential to ensure copyright protection on these products. This paper studies how the Android source code implements the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Digital Right Management (DRM) 1.0, software installation and protection. We also identify potential leaks of Android DRM and software protection in this study.

Production and distribution cost

Production Cost

  • Production cost refers to the cost incurred by a business when manufacturing a good or providing a service.
  • Production costs include a variety of expenses including, but not limited to, labor, raw materials, consumable manufacturing supplies and general overhead. Additionally, any taxes levied by the government or royalties owed by natural resource extracting companies are also considered production costs.

Distribution costs

  • Distribution cost are usually defined as the costs incurred to deliver the product from the production unit to the end
  • Expenses relating to the transportation of goods from production locations to customers, resellers, or other destinations. Changes in the distribution cost can have an effect on the final sale price of the product, as factors such as shipping costs, tolls, warehouse fee, inventory taxes, and other expenses

Trusted System

Trusted system is a system that is relied upon to a specified extent to enforce a specified security policy. This is equivalent to saying that a trusted system is one whose failure would break a security policy (if a policy exists that the trusted system is trusted to enforce).

The meaning of the word “trust” is critical, as it does not carry the meaning that might be expected in everyday usage. A system trusted by a user, is one that the user feels safe to use, and trusts to do tasks without secretly executing harmful or unauthorized programs; while trusted computing refers to whether programs can trust the platform to be unmodified from that expected, whether or not those programs are innocent, malicious or execute tasks that are undesired by the user.

Trusted systems in the context of information theory is based on the definition of trust as ‘Trust is that which is essential to a communication channel but cannot be transferred from a source to a destination using that channel’

Making Lower Distribution Costs Work For You

Don’t fight against lower distribution costs; take advantage of them. Reduced distribution costs offer you a significant advantage by allowing you to promote your products more effectively.

Give away your content
  • information good is “experience good”: consumers don’t know what it is worth to them until they experience it.
  • By “giving away” at least part of their content, they end up making a lot more money
  • Give away only part of your product. This is like the old marketing tactic of offering free samples of consumer products, but updated for the digital age
  • Trick is to: 
    • break your product up into components; some you give away, others you sell. The parts that are given away are the advertisement
      • The infomercials : for the parts you sell
      • Internet is ideal for “infomercials.“
  • Cheap versions (which can even be free) serve as advertisements for the high-priced versions
Demand for Repeat Views
  • For some sorts of information—music, for instance—repeated plays are very important. 
  • If you hear a song on the radio that you like, you may want to hear it again right away. 
  • But if you read a novel—even one that you enjoy very much—you are unlikely to want to read it again in the near future. 
  • The radio broadcast of a song is an ad for itself—or, more accurately, it’s an ad for a more conveniently packaged version of itself.
  • This means that giving away a single view of the product is often an attractive marketing strategy for information goods targeted at the children’s market.
  • The desire for repetition is common among children. There is something very comforting to a child in reading the same story, or hearing the same song, or seeing the same video over and over and over again. 
  • However with wide internet access, this concept is a bit outdated
  • Free samples of information are effective for two reasons:
    •  (1) consumers need samples to see what it is you are selling (the experience good effect)
    •  (2) it costs you almost nothing to provide these extra bits (the zero marginal cost effect)
Complementary Products
  • One attractive idea is to give away an index or table of contents and to sell access to the main material. 
  • This exploits the obvious complementarity between the contents and the content (table)
  • Offer the index or search service for free to increase demand for priced content 

Making Lower Reproduction Costs Work

  • Let us turn now to the other significant cost factor charged by digital technology: 
    • Reproduction. 
    • Digital copies are perfect copies of the original. 
    • For digital content, production is reproduction.
    • Zero or very negligible cost of reproduction of identical copy of product

Trusted Systems

  • Trusted systems are arrangements in which some conditional prediction about the behavior of people has been determined prior to authorizing access to resources.
  • It include system in which probabilistic threat or risk analysis is used to assess trust for decision-making before authorizing access to information goods against likely threats.
  • Further, deviation analysis or systems surveillance is used to ensure that behavior within systems complies with expected or authorized parameters. (I’m not a robot test by google.com)
  • The system helps in checking fraud and piracy thereby accelerating transaction of information goods.
  • The focus of the trusted system is towards risk management through surveillance, exchange of information, auditing, communication and classification.

Historical Example – Growing the market

  • The book producers in 1800 and the video producers in 1980 didn’t appreciate how dramatically the market could grow. 
  • Publishers used to dealing with a wealthy elite didn’t foresee that literacy would dramatically increase if there was something interesting to read
  • Hollywood producers didn’t recognize that VCRs would become a mass-market item if popular content was available for them
  • It’s easy to see the threats inherent in the new media; it’s hard to see the promise.
  • The key issue is how to exploit economies of scale: a thousand consumers paying a dollar a piece to download a piece of software that costs pennies to produce
  • We think that the natural tendency is for producers to worry too much about protecting their intellectual property
  • The important thing is to maximize the value of your intellectual property

Choosing Terms And Conditions

  • The first thing to do is to recognize the fundamental trade-off between control and customer value. 
  • The more liberal you make the terms under which customers can have access to your product, the more valuable it is to them. 
    • you can charge a higher price, and second, more consumers will want to buy it.
  • However, the more liberal the terms and conditions, the more copying and sharing, and the less the producer sells
  • When choosing terms and conditions, recognize the basic trade-off: 
    • more liberal terms and conditions will tend to raise the value of your product to consumers but may reduce the number of units sold. 
    • The trick is to pick the terms and conditions to maximize the value of your intellectual property, not to maximize the protection

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