Short Questions Answers

2060 Q. No. Compare the distinctions between third and fourth-generation computers. [5]

The distinction between Third and Fourth Generation Computers

Third generation computers Fourth generation computers
Technology used: IC (Integrated Circuit). Technology used: Microprocessor or VLSI/VVLSI.
Operating speed: Nanosecond range. Operating speed: Pico second range.
Programming language: HLL (High Level Language). Programming language: (Fourth generation language). 4GL
It used magnetic tape and magnetic disk for storing data. It uses magnetic, optical and flash memories for storing data.
It used RAM and ROM as primary memory. It uses RAM, ROM and cache memory as primary memory.
Computers were used for record keeping in bank, government office and population census. Computers are used for entertainment, designing, record keeping, communication, e-mail, Internet.
Computers are larger in size with larger power requirement and heat generation than 4th generation of computer.  Computers are smaller in size with low power requirement and heat generation. than 3rd generation of computer
Processing speed, storage capacity, use of computer is more than third generation of computer. Processing speed, storage capacity, use of computer is lower than fourth generation of computer.
Example: IBM 360 series, ICL 900| series, Honeywell 200 series Example: IBM desktop PC, Dell notebook, HP laptop, iPad

 

2062 Q. No. 4 Write brief notes on the achievement of the following computer scientist:

  • Howard Aiken

Howard Aiken developed Mark-I in IBM Corporation. It is an electro mechanical calculator that could perform simple calculation. It is also called as ASCC (Automated Sequence Controlled calculator). It was based on the concept of Analytical engine of Charles Babbage. Howard Aiken later modified Mark-I to Mark-II by increasing the number of vacuum tubes.

  • Herman Hollerith

Herman Hollerith developed tabulating machine. This machine was used for US census. He established tabulating machine company. This company was later modified in IBM Corporation. IBM Corporation is one of largest computer manufacturing company till today. He is widely regarded as the father of modern automatic computation. He used the punched card as the basis for storing and processing output information.

 

2069 Q. No. 5 Why computer is known as versatile and diligent device? Explain.

Computer is known as versatile device as it can be used in different area for different task with minimum changes. A computer is used in bank for record keeping, industry for controlling automated machines, telecommunication for communication, home for entertainment, office of preparing reports and documents. We can use computer to perform completely different type of work at the same time.

Computer is a diligent device as it never gets tired or bored when a task is repeated for multiple times. It never gets tired or bored as humans. The result, accuracy, time required for calculation is always the same. Unlike human beings, computers are highly consistent. They do not suffer from human character of boredom and tiredness resulting in lack of concentration. Computers, therefore, are better than human beings in performing voluminous and repetitive jobs. Computer can work for hours without any break and creating error.

 

2074 Supp Q.No. 5 Write characteristics of second generation computer.

The characteristics of second generation computers are: 

  • Technology used: Transistor
  • Operating speed: Microseconds range.
  • Programming language: Assembly language and independent language (high level) such as COBOL (Common de machine Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translation) were introduced to simplify programming.
  • Memory used:
  • Primary memory: Magnetic core memory.
  • Secondary memory: Magnetic drum and magnetic tape.
  • Input/output device: Punched card, printing devices were used for input/output operations.
  • Use: Scientific calculations such as solving differential equations.
  • It was much faster, more reliable, better speed and could handle enormous amount of data than first generation computer.
  • Storage capacity and use of computer increased.
  • Example: IBM 1620, Honeywell 400 series, LEO Mark III, IBM 7094, etc.

 

2075 Set B Q.No. 9 Define computer. Explain the features of third generation computer. 

A computer is a multipurpose, electronic, programmable device that accepts inputs from the user, stores it and processes it to generate the refined output at an enormous speed. It includes four major components: Input, Memory, CPU (Central Processing Unit) and Output. It requires software for its operation.

Features of Third generation Computer 

Third generation of computers (1964-1971):

  • Technology used: IC (Integrated Circuit)
  • Operating speed: Nanosecond 
  • Programming language: HLL (High Level Language) or 3GL and 4GL.
  • Memory used: 
    • Primary memory: Semiconductor memory like RAM and ROM. 
    • Secondary memory: Magnetic tape, Magnetic disk like floppy disk, hard disk. 
    • Use: Calculations, record keeping in bank, insurance company, managing population census.
  • Input/output device: Keyboard as input and monitor as output device were introduced.
  • Concept of database, multiprogramming are developed and used. 
  • Minicomputers are developed.
  • Size, cost, power requirement and heat generation decreased than of second generation of computers
  • Processing speed, storage capacity and use of computer increased than of second generation of computers.
  • Example: IBM 360 series, ICL 900 series, Honeywell 200 series.

Long Questions Answers

Write characteristics of second and third generation computers.

The characteristics of second generation computers are: 

  1. Technology used: Transistor
  2. Operating speed: Microseconds range.
  3. Programming language: Assembly language and independent language (high level) such as COBOL (Common de machine Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translation) were introduced to simplify programming.
  4. Memory used:

Primary memory: Magnetic core memory.

Secondary memory: Magnetic drum and magnetic tape.

  1. Input/output device: Punched card, printing devices were used for input/output operations.
  2. Use: Scientific calculations such as solving differential equations.
  3. It was much faster, more reliable, better speed and could handle enormous amounts of data than a first generation computer.
  4. Storage capacity and use of computers increased.
  5. Example: IBM 1620, Honeywell 400 series, LEO Mark III, IBM 7094, etc.

The characteristics of fourth generation computers are: 

Technology in use: Microprocessor or VLSI or VLSI.

Operating speed: Picosecond range Programming language: 4GL (Fourth generation language).

Memory in use:

Primary memory: Semiconductor memory like RAM, ROM and Cache memory.

Secondary memory: Magnetic disk like hard disk. Optical memory like CD, DVD. Flash memory like pen drive, memory card.

Use: Computers are used for record keeping, calculation, entertainment, communication, controlling, health sector, scientific, and engineering.

Input/Output device: Flexible devices like mouse, touch screen, LCD, LED are developed.

The Concepts of multiprocessing, multithreading, distributed processing, and cloud computing are developed and used.

Microcomputers like desktop PC, laptop, notebook and tablet are developed.

Advanced operating systems like Windows, Android, iOS are developed.

Communication mediums like the Internet, email became popular and mobile communication, wireless communication were developed.

Advanced, user friendly, web based software are developed. Size, cost, power requirement, heat generation decreased than of third generation of computers

Processing speed, storage capacity, computer use increased compared to the third generation of computers.

Example: IBM desktop PC, Dell notebook, HP laptop, iPad.

 

Define computers. Compare the distinctions between third and fourth generation computers.

A computer is a multipurpose, electronic, programmable device that accepts inputs from the user, stores it and processes it to generate the refined output at an enormous speed. It includes four major components: Input, Memory, CPU (Central Processing Unit) and Output. It requires software for its operation.

Distinction between Third and Fourth Generation Computers

Third generation computers Fourth generation computers
Technology used: IC (Integrated Circuit). Technology used: Microprocessor or VLSI/VVLSI.
Operating speed: Nanosecond range. Operating speed: Picosecond range.
Programming language: HLL (High Level Language). Programming language: (Fourth generation language). 4GL
It used magnetic tape and a magnetic disk for storing data. It uses magnetic, optical and flash memories for storing data.
It used RAM and ROM as primary memory. It uses RAM, ROM and cache memory as primary memory.
Computers were used for record keeping in banks, government offices and population census. Computers are used for entertainment, designing, record keeping, communication, e-mail, and the Internet.
Computers are larger in size with larger power requirement and heat generation than 4th generation computers.  Computers are smaller in size with low power requirement and heat generation. than 3rd generation of computer
Processing speed, storage capacity, use of computers is more than the third generation of computer. Processing speed, storage capacity, use of computers is lower than fourth generation computers.
Example: IBM 360 series, ICL 900| series, Honeywell 200 series Example: IBM desktop PC, Dell notebook, HP laptop, iPad

 

Why is a computer known as a versatile and diligent device? Explain Classifying the computers according to their generation based on the technology used..

Computer is known as a versatile device as it can be used in different areas for different tasks with minimum changes. A computer is used in banks for record keeping, industry for controlling automated machines, telecommunication for communication, home for entertainment, office for preparing reports and documents. We can use computers to perform completely different types of work at the same time.

Computer is a diligent device as it never gets tired or bored when a task is repeated multiple times. It never gets tired or bored as humans. The result, accuracy, and time required for calculation is always the same. Unlike human beings, computers are highly consistent. They do not suffer from the human character of boredom and tiredness resulting in lack of concentration. Computers, therefore, are better than human beings in performing voluminous and repetitive jobs. Computers can work for hours without any break and creating errors.

Computers according to their generation based on the technology used are classifying as follows:

  • First generation computer

Technology used: Vacuum tube

Operating speed: Millisecond range

Programming language: Machine language

 Example: ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAV.

  • Second generation computer

Technology used: Transistor

Operating speed: Microsecond range

Programming language: Assembly language

 Example: Leo Mark-III, IBM 1620, IBM 7094

  • Third generation computer

Technology used: IC (Integrated Circuit)

Operating speed: Nanosecond: range

Programming language: HLL (High level language)

 Example: IBM 360 Series, ICL 900 Series, Honeywell 200 Series

  • Fourth generation computer

Technology in use: VLSI or microprocessor

Operating speed: Picosecond range

Programming language: 4GL (Fourth generation language)

 Example: Desktop PC, Laptop, Tablet PC.

  • Fifth generation computer

Technology to be used: Biochip

 Operating speed: Femtosecond range

Programming language: Natural language

 

Write characteristics of second generation computers. Discuss about how the development of the PCs (Personal Computer) has extended the use of computers at present days. 

The characteristics of second generation computers are: 

  • Technology used: Transistor
  • Operating speed: Microseconds range.
  • Programming language: Assembly language and independent language (high level) such as COBOL (Common de machine Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translation) were introduced to simplify programming.
  • Memory used:
    • Primary memory: Magnetic core memory.
    • Secondary memory: Magnetic drum and magnetic tape.
  • Input/output device: Punched card, printing devices were used for input/output operations.
  • Use: Scientific calculations such as solving differential equations.
  • It was much faster, more reliable, better speed and could handle enormous amounts of data than a first generation computer.
  • Storage capacity and use of computers increased.
  • Example: IBM 1620, Honeywell 400 series, LEO Mark III, IBM 7094, etc.

Extended Use of Computer at Present Days Due to the Development of PC

PC (Personal Computer) is a microcomputer developed for a single user. It is the smallest, cheapest, slowest and has the least power requirement computer. However, it is the most widely used among all. It can be both portable and non-portable. It is developed in the fourth generation of computers. The development of the PC (Personal Computer) has made portable, rechargeable batteries operable, smaller in size, cheaper in cost and more useful computer.

Before the development of the PC, computers were large, expensive with larger power requirements. They were used only for calculations and record keeping in banks, government sectors and business.

Development of the PC has extended the use of computers at present days as it is found applicable in many application areas. It is used in home, office, industry, business and many more areas. Students can use the Internet through the PC. Communication, exchange of ideas, discussion, etc. have been possible through PC. It is applicable in engineering, designing, and controlling small units. The development of the PC has made the possible to use a single computer by a person in an office, home and school. The portable PCs such as laptop, notebook, tablet PC are more common among computer users at present. PCs are the major source of entertainment, education, communication, desktop publishing. Hence, the use of computers has increased after the development of the PC.


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