Culture gives the opportunity to develop the personality. Every society gives the trainings to its members in accordance with cultural practices. Human being learns from the society. The personality of an individual depends on culture. According to MacIver, “Socialization is the process by which social beings establish wider and profounder relationships with one another, in which they become more bound up with, and more perceptive personality of themselves and of others and build up the complex structure of nearer and wider associations”. In fact, socialization is a subject of learning, society provides the space to enhance the capacity of the people. They became social person through the socialization processes. In the society, individual learn their behavior through the interaction process. Society provides the certain roles and responsibilities as per age, gender, capacity and social position. The original nature of human being acquire from the society. To adjust in society, an individual need to adopt social environment. The socialization process enhances the maturation of the people. It plays the significant roles for the transmission of culture from one generation to another, where they learn different types of rules and regulations.


“Process of working together, of developing group responsibility, of being guided by the welfare needs of others”    -Bogards

“Socialization consists of the “complex processes of interaction through which individual learn the habits, skills, beliefs and standards of judgment that are necessary for his effective participation in social group and communities”. -Lundberg

Types of Socialization

Socialization is a life-long process; it has been continued since childhood to adult age. There are various types of socialization.

  1. Primary socialization: The socialization process of infant stage is known as primary socialization. The infant stage children learn to communicate or learn language. It is a basic socialization process. It takes early years of life. Children learn cognitive skills and they have close interaction with culture. Children could not distinguish right and wrong, moral and immoral. They also learn language, attitudes, norms and values.
  2. Secondary Socialization: The secondary process of socialization can be seen in outside the family- mainly with peer groups. They learn at school or beyond the family environment, where they received different kinds of social trainings and skills in the different institutions. The mass media, school, office and work place play the important roles for the socialization. This kind of socialization process also referred as adult socialization. In this stage men discard the old ways and accept new ideas, values, attitudes, views and vision. In this stage they have multiple choices and adopt the material life. An individual teaches people to take new duties and change the views of individual and change the overt behavior.
  3. Anticipatory Socialization: An individual who learn the culture of a group with the anticipation of joining that group. They learn different types of beliefs, norms, value and so on. This process of socialization shows that a man could not alone learn culture of groups to which they are not concern. For instance, they learn through the joining sport club, through the physical training and technical knowledge that build the sportsmanship. This kind of socialization may take place anytime and anyplace throughout their life.
  4. Re-socialization: Through this process an individual discard their former behavior and accept the new culture. The social role is fundamentally changed. People received new position and status in the society and they also change the membership.

Personality and Socialization

The personality of human being depends on culture. The culture is constructed through the different types of shared beliefs, behaviors, arts, materials, attitudes, norms and values. The cultural components could be transmitted generation to generation. The personality of any individual would be product of culture, their personality develop through the socialization process. The socialization process is continues process. People acquire their behavior, attitudes, arts and artifacts through the process of interaction and adaptation. Kimball Young argued that “personality consists of habits, attitudes and ideas that are built up around both people and things”. Culture provides the specific space to build the personality of an individual. Through the socialization process an individual able to distinguish him/her from others. Culture provides the space to control or make the people to be discipline. Individual exhibit their cultural traits as per their cultural background. Human habits like emotion, suspicion, aggressiveness, greedy, sentimental, and coyness are product of socialization process. Each culture develops special kinds of personality. An individual develop their personality through the different means and methods followed by certain cultural rules. The cultural ideology, religious beliefs, tradition and attitudes influence the day-to-day life. The masculine and famine behavior is not necessarily depends on biological facts rather influence of the culture, for instance, in Brahmin/ Chhetri women are mild, coy, shyness and emotional than the ethnic group’s women in Nepal. Brahmin/Chhetri women have discriminated position, whereas ethnic group’s women including Thakali, Sherpa and Gurung are more open and they have dominant role and equally contributed to give the financial decision in the everyday business. Ruth Benidict and Margaret Mead provided the supportive ideas how culture develop the individual personality. The nature of an individual determine through the socialization under the rules and regulations of the particular culture.      


Adaptation is one of the most important issues in sociology, which maintains the social system or social structure; for example family should adopt social, economic and educational phenomena to maintain the familial system. Any social system like family, a state or organization needs to adopt its environment for the existence or survive. Adaptation is necessary for the functional prerequisites. Every individual of the society needs to adopt new social component for the proper adjustment. The adaptation process deals about interdependence of the social parts in the society. The term adaptation in sociology was influenced by the biology in the 19th century. The notion of adaptation process is mainly for the social change and transformation of society. Talcott Parson implies the notion of adaptation in the context of action; he states that “social system must cope with external boundary condition such as resources, physical condition, geographical phenomena”. People solve the economic problems through the process of adaptation. In Sociology, adaptation is taken as major driving force of social change. Due to adaptation simple hunting-gathering societies change into modern advance society. Adaptation process helps to understand the relationship between parts of society and system as a whole. The adaptation of new thing within the integral social systems changes the whole system. Environmental condition of the society forces the human being to adapt new technologies, new ideas and even new customs and norms. 


Co-operation is a continuous process in the society. In Co-operation two or more than two individuals work together to achieve the common goals. It’s a form of interaction when different people interact together to attain common goals. Co-operation process maintains friendship, solidarity and integrity within the people. In Co-operation two or more than two people jointly carried out their work to fulfill their needs and expectation. Co-operation process often includes common goals and organized effort within the people. Cooperation helps to solve many problems which they face in their everyday life. In our everyday life we can’t alone solve our problems, thus we need co-operation of other people. Co-operation is necessary that exist in dyadic form. There is close interaction and interdependent relationship between individuals through the Co-operation; for instance, to achieve good result in the final exam there need to be Co-operation between professors and students. Both of them should work together for the better result. They must kindly support one another. The cooperating parties are either neutral or kindly dispose towards one another. Co-operation is necessary everywhere such as modern industrial sectors, school, companies, bureaucratic organizations and large departmental stores. This is conscious process where two or more individual consciously work together to complete their goals. They should continuously work in a collective way. This is a universal process which can be seen everywhere and every groups, societies and nations. This is necessary for the progress of an individual as well as their society. There are four types of Co-operation

Direct Co-operation: In the direct function an individual involved together i.e. play together, worship together and work together. People do in the company with other members of their concern work that may bring final state of function in their day-to-day life.

Indirect Co-operation: In the indirect Co-operation where people work individually to attain common ends. In indirect Co-operation people have been worked in accordance with division of labor, for example CEO, manager, cashier, tailor, and computer engineer have different responsibility within the bank or financial institution; however they work for the same end or they work for the financial service and benefit of their organization. In the indirect Co-operation people have been worked as per their specialization.

Primary Co-operation: Primary Co-operation found in primary groups such as family, peer group, play group and friends. There is identification of their goal where all of them work for the betterment. The reward of work would be equally shared among the members of the society. They have one means and ends.

Secondary Co-operation: Secondary Co-operation can be seen in the modern capitalistic society which can be observed in the secondary groups. Every individual performed their activities in formal and specialized settings. Secondary Co-operation is individualistic and calculative. Each individual often work for his own benefit and wages. Member of the group shows some sort of loyalty towards the group. However there is no priority for the welfare of group, they are separately performing their tasks for wages, salaries, promotion, status and benefits. There is differentiation in their Co-operation and duties to meet their goal.

Tertiary Co-operation

In tertiary group two or more than two groups, parties, tribes, caste, religious groups work together for antagonistic goals. Two or more than two parties unite together to defeat their rival parties in the election or in parliament for the formation of government.


Competition could be seen in every society within the groups, societies and individuals. It is a form of struggle to achieve certain goal, status and position. Competition could be culturally conditioned. It’s a universal, impersonal and a form of social interaction. An individual engage in competition to get benefit. Competition is less violent in compared to conflict. An individual focused on reward a goal attainment. According to Horton and Hunt, “Competition is a struggle for possession of reward which are limited supply money, goods, status, power, love anything”. People everywhere compete for the property, status possession for mates and wealth’s. The Competition and Co-operation often exists in reciprocal form. The modern capitalistic world has been running its activities in competitive way to generate economy. In positive point of view, competition process serves as a form of recreation and gives the new production in a non-hostile form. In the negative point of view, competition may cause the hostile injury and destruction in the day-to-day activities of human being. In fact, competition is driving force of social change which gives the satisfaction and fulfills the need and expectations. Social Darwinists states that competition serves as a mechanism for determining the best suited-group economically and politically. The competition within the group not only struggle but also produce positive result within the people. It often initiates under the systematic rules and regulations of the society. According Park and Burger; “competition is an interaction without social contact”. It has been a curse between two or more groups for the same goal, the achievement will not be shared among the all. Some characteristics of competition are:

  1. Competition is continuous: An individual engage in competition to achieve something i.e. status, fame, wealth and position. Competition between two or more than two individuals or groups.
  2. Competition is universal process: Competition can be occurred any society, place and culture. Conflict covers all areas of social life. For example, competition between business men occurred to achieve maximum benefit, lawyer for the clients, students to achieve better grades, players for trophies and politician to achieve power.
  3. Competition brings change: Competition within people brings social transformation. They adopt new ideas, technologies, views and knowledge to achieve new ends in their everyday life. The competition process enhances the capacity of both an individual as well as group that bring change in the structure of the society.
  4. Competition is governed by norms: The competition process often governed by certain norms and values of the society. Norms of the society controls and mobilize the people towards the achievement of goals. The norms always force to perform roles and responsibilities as per rules and regulations of the society. The moral laws always govern the individual activities with decent order.                                                
  5. Competition is impersonal and personal: Competition would be both personal and impersonal. In impersonal competition occur in a social world where competitors do not know about the identity of his competitors for instance, when you are attending public service examination may not have knowledge about your competitors. In personal competition two or more than two competitors know each other while contest for the particular goals i.e. intra-party election for president in the personal conflict there would be rival relation and conflict type of competition.
  6. Competition may be constructive and destructive: The constructive competition always stimulating and supportive. The healthy competition obviously gives the good result. Sometimes competition might be unhealthy, fraud and corrupt which neither creative nor productive.


Globalization is normally associated with history of capitalism. Globalization itself concerns with the global networks of commodity, production, labor relation, flow of technology, flow of idea and flow of media. The globalization process changes the economic organization, institution and social process. Globalization looks at impact of industrialization, global economy and transnationalism of finance beside the flow of trade, finance, culture and idea. The theory of globalization always impact of multinational companies, aid agencies and neo-liberal polices at local level. This is also based on interconnectedness, flow of technologies, finance, and transnational connections. This process encompasses the transformation of culture, power, economy and politics not only global to local but local to global. Globalization process itself an exchange process of technology, idea and knowledge. The impact of globalization transforms the social structure, social value and ethos of culture. The transnational migration project builds the cross broader relationships. It shows the mobility of capital and labor. In the globalization process we should look at the circulation of productive items found one place to another. This process not only transfers the productive items but also their ideas, knowledge and practices. Globalization process tends to intensify the global and local networks even they are living many miles away from one from another. The globalization process promotes the displacement mainly from centre to periphery or from its own specific territories to global spaces that decay the local value system. Globalization is mediated by the migration, communication, technology, finance, it shows the core and periphery relationships. The globalization project is only initiated after the decolonization process. Global theories always encompass economic production, trade, colonialism and imperialism—which depend on investment and profit making. The globalization processes detach the local space through its policies of production, consumption and investment. In the globalization, the role of media seems to be prominent that helps to flow the art, dance, knowledge, ideas and ideology of the people that transforms the identity of people. The social structure and culture deteriorated by the globalization process. The globalization process increase the refugee, displace the people largely makes the stateless people–who form the diasporas communities. This process shifts the economic, social, political and cultural relationships. The process of globalization integrates nations, religion, states and societies together through the global process of capitalism. Globalization process increases the interdependency and instability within the social system. Globalization is a micro-level projects which impacts on the day-to- day life of the people. The political power determined the investment, production, market price, wages and creation of new market. In fact, globalization is an economic project which helps to create the economic opportunities.

Implication of social process in management and business administration

Social processes are important to enhance the business. This process teaches us how to learn, cope struggle and adjust to run the business. These components are important for the progress in the everyday business. Social process depicts the social realities and social relationships which might be individual to individual, individual to group. Social process influences the business environment, action and activities of businessman, consumer behavior, personality development, their choices and interests. Socialization process develops the personality that effects the behavior of producers and consumers. Socialization process builds the different habits, attitudes, faith and beliefs since the childhood period that guided production, transition and management. The more you have knowledge about society the more you promote you business scientifically and make appropriate strategies. The consumer habits often constructed within social structure—which always influence their day-to-day activities. The nurturing process is culturally conditioned which assign rights and responsibility of the people. The socialization process based on caste, class, ethnicity and religion, thus we need to understand all of these social phenomena before initiating any business. Social process often guided by socio-cultural forces of the society, such as religion, language, values, attitudes and beliefs. The understanding social process helps to grow the profit from the client and other appropriate agencies. Social adaptation and co-operation often associated with maintenance of society which builds the mutual relation within the members of the society. These two processes promote to continue the existing practices or system of organization. Adaptation and co-operation leads better production and change the social system without disturbing the values of companies. The collaborative and collective works within the concerned member improve the quality of commodities. The social process inspires the businessman to adopt the new ideas, new knowledge and new technologies for the change and enhance the business and services. It also concerns with adaptive choices of the individuals. The implications new ideas, innovations and new knowledge helps to give decision in right time. The cooperation process often deals to work together and mutual interdependence within the members—which may foster the peace and harmony. Cooperation process also highlights the significance of each member. Their effort for production, distribution, and transition process provides the service to the clients. Any organizations and business of the people unable to solve in isolation, thus they need support and co-ordinate of other members who can contribute through the various means and methods. The collaborative effort helps to run the business system and mobilize the resources scientifically. Within social process competition and conflicts are reciprocal to adaptation and co-operation. The competition and conflicts both are fundamental for change that depends on individuals struggle. If we look at competition and conflict positive point of view, it will help to grow the production new innovation and invention in the business companies, it leads the organization towards the creativity. People will adapt the different means, methods and strategies. To achieve social position and status, an individual can achieve certain goals and efforts through his own effort and can earn more than his rival companies. Competition with the business organization often culturally conditioned which may change across the time and space therefore; we need to understand the social processes. Competition also helps to provide better service to the consumers in terms better production and qualities of goods. The competition process not only brings the change within social structure but also provide the service to the people. Conflict is also fundamental aspects to ensure rights and responsibility. Conflict within the organization aware the people about the exploitation through the process of surplus generation. Conflict aware lower class people particularly investments, time, income, labor and wages. Conflict within organization inspires the market to bring the information and structural change.

Globalization process fosters the capitalism that creates the new opportunities such as business employment, profit, and employment through the local and global network. The local and global network process helps to mobilize the resources and creates the employment at local level. Globalization is not only brings the flow of technologies, media, idea and knowledge but also bring the transformation in the multiple sectors. Globalization process also provides many opportunities in the private sectors inspire the private organization in the sector of investment, production and distribution. Third world countries like Nepal also sell their production in the international market. The globalization process makes the business environment for the industrialization. It also deteritoralized the business and break down the hegemony of the certain peoples and their countries. An individual can earn more through the implication of new technologies and media. The Globalization process helps to integrate the entire world into one through the globalization.                 

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