FOOD PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT (KITCHEN)

Very Important Question Answer

1. Define the Accompaniments

Accompaniments are generally flavored food or sauces offered with specific dishes. In most cases they are an integral part of a dish and is always served from the kitchen. Appropriate accompaniments enhance the flavour of a dish by providing a balance or contrast to its taste, for example, rich food may attain a balance with accompanied appropriate sauce or the way taste of bland food may improve when accompanied by a pickle or chutney. If accompaniments are matched correctly with a dish it brings about a little extra appreciation of the meal and adds to the dinner’s delight.

2. Define the Dressing

A dressing is usually served with all types of salad. It adds flavour, provide food value, helps in digestion, improve palatability and appearance. It may be a liquid or semi-liquid form, and a mixture of oil vinegar, seasoning, eggs and cream, etc. The basic dressings are mayonnaise, vinaigrette, acidulated cream, yogurt, French, lemon dressing, etc.

 

3. Explain the Raising agents

Raising agents are those materials which are used during the food preparation that increase the surface area by creating gas -bubbles, puffing-up, increasing the volume and making it light. It increases the size, and food becomes soft and spongy. It must be used in perfect quantity to get the desirable result and test of the food.

The raising agents

Different methods and techniques are used for raising food items.

  • Air: as a raising agent.
  • Water vapor: as a raising agent. Physical agent: Whisking and beating the flour, rubbing fat in to flour, whisking or beating eggs, etc can be used as raising agent.
  • Yeast is a living thing or microorganism. It requires food, moisture, warmth and air for its growth. The ideal temperature is 21°- 27°C and is destroyed at over 52°C. It contains vitamins B and therefore helps to build and repair the body tissue and provides protection. In the market it is available as fresh or dried. It changes sugar to carbon dioxide, so that the dough, in which it is generated, is aerated. Yeast is used in pastry items such as bread, dough, bun, etc.
  • Baking powder is a chemical raising agent made of sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar. By the help of moisture and heat it produces carbon dioxide gas. It must be stored in airtight containers and should not be kept for too long.

4. Explain the Culinary

Culinary is the art of preparing and cooking food. It includes knowledge of the science of food and understanding of diet and nutrition. Generally in hospitality it is understood a kitchen management. A kitchen is the well designed area for food preparation.

 

5. Explain the Balanced Diet

 → Balance diet is a diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity. It is a healthy diet, which helps to maintain or improve general health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: adequate fluid, adequate essential amino acids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and adequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A healthy diet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition without exposure to toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. A balance diet minimize the health risks,

Basic rule of balance diet is to eat roughly the same amount of calories that your body is using. A healthy weight is a balance between energy consumed and energy that is ‘burnt off’. Here are some basic guidelines of balance diet:

  1. Increase consumption of plant foods, particularly fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts.
  2. Limit intake of fats.
  3. Limit the intake of granulated sugar.
  4. Limit salt / sodium consumption from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized.
  5. Give importance to vitamins and certain minerals.
  6. Avoid poisonous and carcinogenic substances.
  7. Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens such as tapeworm eggs.


6. Explain the Aim and objective of cooking

Culinary operation of subjecting food to the action of heat is cooking. It is an art of application of heat to prepare food. The objective of cooking is to bring chemical and physical change in food to make it a complete dish. It makes food eatable, improves its flavor or makes it easier to digest. Cooking also makes eye appealing, creates an appetite, makes food digestible and kills harmful bacteria. While cooking more than two ingredients of food commodities are combined.

In hotel industry cooking food includes from preparation to presentation. It includes purchasing, receiving, handling and processing and finally presenting the dish to the customer.

Cooking will bring different types of changes to the food:

  1. Chemical changes: Through softening coagulation, swelling or dissolving, en food becomes either edible (rice, floor) or easier to digest. By cooking, the collagen in meat is destroyed, which makes it tender. By cooking the cellulose fibers of vegetables are also softened. The pectin of fruits is released and starch increases in volume by cooking.
  2. Change in appearance: Cooking and preparations change the rast of the food and becomes more appetizing. For example, the browning by appearance grills and ovens, the glazing of vegetables, the caramelization of sugar, etc. change the appearance of the food.
  3.  Development of aroma and flavors: The taste of the basic ingredients is improved by cooking when we add extra flavors, condiments, herbs, wine, etc. Reducing liquid by cooking gives a more pronounced flavor, and marinating food adds flavor before cooking.
  4. Elimination of the harmful bacteria and parasites, which are destroyed by heat, particularly through boiling.

7. Define the Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates are the source of energy needed for our body muscles, brain and nervous system. The function of carbohydrates is to provide the body with most of its energy. There are three types of carbohydrates; sugar, starch and cellulose.

  1. Sugar: Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrate and the end products of the digestion of carbohydrates. They are absorbed in the form of glucose and provide heat and energy.
  2. Starch: is composed of a number of glucose molecules and during to digestion starch is broken down into glucose.
  3.  Cellulose: It is the coarser structure of vegetables and cereals which is not e digested but is used as roughage in the intestine. It is often referred to as dietary- fiber.

8. Explain the Personal hygiene

Personal hygiene is very much important for a hospitality business specially working in the kitchen as it affects not only the individual person himself but the area surrounding him. The appearance of staff reflects the standard of the establishment in the eyes of the public. Self-respect is necessary in every food-handler because a pride in one’s appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness. Cleanliness itself starts with people and good personal hygiene habits. These factors will determine a major cause of potential contamination.

Germs or bacteria are to be found in and on the body and they can be transferred on to anything with which they come in contact. Personal cleanliness is essential to prevent germs getting on to food. Persons suffering from ill health or who are not clean should not handle food.

A kitchen staff must have clean hair, manicure finger nails, clean hands and feet and must ensure that no body or mouth odor is present.

 

10. Explain the Food poisoning

Food Poisoning can be defined as an illness characterized by stomach pains and diarrhea and sometimes vomiting developing within one to 36 hours after eating the affected food. Sometimes headaches and fever symptoms may appear even after three days after eating such infected food. It is an illness caused by eating certain food. It is due to the character of certain food or due to the contaminated food or harmful bacteria the food contained. The main causes of food poisoning are the ignorance of hygiene, carelessness or negligence about the food or about the equipment. Sometimes food poisoning happens due to accidents also.

Cause of food poisoning:

The most common cases of food poisoning are caused by bacteria. Since they are found everywhere food handlers should pay more attention to good personal hygiene. But some food poison is natural or due to the nature of the chemical. Sometimes people eat poisonous plants unknowingly and get sick.

  • Natural: certain fish and plants are naturally poisonous and can be the cause of food poisoning. They are Blowfish/fug fish, shellfish (“Red tide”), poisonous crabs such as thunder mosaic, green egg, etc. Certain plants such as Toadstool, Rhubarb leaves, fungi, etc. are poisonous by nature. Every year many villagers die by eating poisonous mushrooms.
  • Chemical: Enamel from galvanised containers, chemical in water, cleaning materials, cause illness. The pesticides or poisons used while growing fruits, fruits are absorbed by the plant and causes illness in human beings. The chemical colour used in traditional food eoriand preparation is also found harmful. Fungicides used as preservatives nors such as nitrates and nitrites are harmful chemicals.
  •   Metallic: Lead, Zink, copper pans should be correctly used and never used for storing food. As it can cause reaction of food and will be the reason of food poison. Mercury is another poisonous metal and should be handled very carefully.


11. Write kitchen safety rules to prevent ‘Cuts’ and ‘Burns’ remembering the phrases ‘Prevention is better than cure’.

Safety, sanitation and hygienic atmosphere are very vital for kitchen. Accident in the kitchen could be a great loss to the organization, for the injured person and if it is serious one it may affect guests also. The safe atmosphere provides peace of mind and increases the efficiency of the staff. So the person in charge of a kitchen should be aware of ensuring safety in the kitchen. Kitchen is the most dangerous place to work. Kitchen contains many types of equipment, which should be handled with utmost care. A simple and minor negligence with these elements such as fire, gas cylinders, pressure cookers, steamer, knife, etc. may cause accidents. Kitchen floor is also an equally dangerous place to move. Accidents occur because of unsafe equipment, wrong installation of the equipment, wrong working procedures, untrained staff, disregarding safety, lack of concentration while performing a task, working at unsafe speed.

It is advised to post safety instruction. Every staff always must remember the phrase “prevention is better than cure”. The chef should foresee the possible causes of accidents and eliminate them.

  1. Kitchen safety rules to prevent cuts
  2. The correct knife should be used for appropriate job.
  3. Knives must be sharp and clean.
  4. Never try to catch a falling knife.
  5. While carrying knives the point should be held downwards.
  6. Handle of knives must be dry and is not greasy.
  7. Make sure while using chopper there should not be any articles on the Stable.
  8. Knives should be placed flat on the table.
  9.  Knives should be wiped clean with the edge away from the hands.
  10. Do not put knives in a washing sink.
  11.  Knife should be firmly held.
  12. Use knives only for cutting never use to open lids, cans and other containers.
  13. To prevent burns
  14. Always wear long sleeves and apron.
  15. Hot pants or pots should not be held with wet cloth.
  16. Tray containing hot liquid should be handled carefully.
  17. Any article to be fried must be dried.
  18. Extra care should be taken when a cold liquid is added to a hot (roux) or when adding cold water to boiling sugar for making caramel.
  19. It is important to check the steam before opening the steamer and be sure no one is in the way of the escaping steam.

12. Explain the Protein

The word protein means ‘Prin importance as they are of greatest importance to the human body. Protein is necessary for growth, maintenance and repair of the body. Our body has limited ability to digest protein so if it is taken too much one may suffer from indigestion.

There are two kinds of protein or source of protein.

  •  Animate protein, found in meat, game, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, etc.
  • Vegetable protein found mainly in the vegetables seeds such as quid pulses, grains, nuts and cereals. The proportion of protein in green and root vegetable is small. Cereal seeds have small portion of protein but it provides substantial amount because of the large quantity we take.

Protein is composed of different amino-acids, so the protein of cheese is different from the protein of meat because the number and arrangement of the acids are not the same. A certain number of these amino-acids are essential to the body and have to be provided by food. Proteins containing all the essential amino-acids in the correct proportion are said to be of high biological value.

 

13. Write short notes on satellite kitchen.

 The kitchen is the place where food is prepared. In a hotel or in restaurant a special room is used for food preparation and is known as kitchen. In outside catering it is a place assigned for food preparation. Kitchen is the central point of activities in all restaurants and hotels where food is prepared. It is the heart of hotel.

In terms of management kitchen is organized in three different ways one of them is satellite kitchen.

In Satellite Kitchen type of kitchen management food is pre-prepared separately in different kitchen. This type of kitchen is suitable for large and modern establishments with many outlets serving different foods. The focus here is to have each preparation department specializing types of in certain products. For example, to manage one kitchen for Indian food and other for China food and one for continental food.

14. Define kitchen safety rules and its procedure

Safety, sanitation and hygienic atmosphere are very vital for kitchen. Accident in the kitchen could be a great loss to the organization, for the injured person and if it is serious one it may affect guests also. The safe atmosphere provides peace of mind and increases the efficiency of the staff. So the person in charge of a kitchen should be aware of ensuring safety in the kitchen.

Kitchen is the most dangerous place to work. Kitchen contains many types of equipment, which should be handled with utmost care. A simple and minor negligence with these elements such as fire, gas cylinders, pressure cookers, steamer, knife, etc. may cause accidents. Kitchen floor is also an equally dangerous place to move. Accidents occur because of unsafe equipment, wrong installation of the equipment, wrong working procedures, untrained staff, disregarding safety, lack of concentration while performing a task, working at unsafe speed.

It is advised to post safety instruction. Every staff always must remember the phrase “prevention is better than cure”. The chef should foresee the possible causes of accidents and eliminate them.

Kitchen safety rules:

  1.  To prevent cuts
    1. The correct knife should be used for appropriate job.
    2. Knives must be sharp and clean.
    3. Never try to catch a falling knife.
    4. While carrying knives the point should be held downwards.
    5. Handle of knives must be dry and is not greasy.
    6. Make sure while using chopper there should not be. any articles on the table
    7. Knives should be placed flat on the table.
    8. Knives should be wiped clean with the edge away from the hands.
    9. Do not put knives in a washing sink.
    10. Knife should be firmly held.
    11. Use knives only for cutting never use to open lids, cans and other containers.
  2. To prevent burns
    1. Always wear long sleeves and apron.
    2. Hot pants s or pots should not be held with wet cloth.
    3. Tray containing hot liquid should be handled carefully.
    4. Any article to be fried must be dried.
    5. Extra care should be taken when a cold liquid is added to a hot (roux) or when adding cold water to boiling sugar for making caramel.
    6. It is important to check the steam before opening the steamer and be sure no one is in the way of the escaping steam.

15. Write short notes on milk and milk products.

Milk is a white opaque nutritious liquid produced by mother animals to feed their young. Milk is obtained from cows, buffaloes, yaks, goats and ewes, camel, etc. For commercial purpose many animals are high breed for better yield. The composition of milk varies according to the type and breed of animal, its health, and the diet on which it has been reared. Nutritional values obtained from milk are protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamin A, B, C and D.

Milk Products:

  1. Cream (Crème): This is concentrated milk fat, skimmed from milk. Cream must contain at least 18% of butter fat.
  2. Butter: Butter is produced by churning the cream of milk. Cooked and purified butter is known as Ghee, which is more popular in India and Nepal. It is easier to preserve and has long life compared to butter.
  3. Cheese: Cheese is popular food product made from milk. It containsprotein, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins and water. Therefore, it is an excellent body building, energy-producing food.
  4. Yoghurt is food prepared from milk fermented by the action of bacteria.


16. Explain the Functions and sources of carbohydrate

Carbohydrates are the source of energy needed for our body muscles, brain and nervous system. The function of carbohydrates is to provide with most of its energy a body needs. There are three types of carbohydrates; sugar, starch and cellulose.

  1. Sugar: Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrate and the end products of the digestion of carbohydrates. They are absorbed in the form of glucose and provide heat and energy. There are several kinds of sugar:
    1. Glucose: found in the blood of animals and in fruits and honey
    2. Fructose: found in fruit, honey and cane sugar
    3. Sucrose: found in beet and cane sugar Lactose: found in milk
    4. Maltose: produced naturally during the germination of grain.
  2. Starch: is composed of a number of glucose molecules ( particles) and during digestion starch is broken down into glucose. Starch is presented in the diet through the following food:
    1. Whole grains: rice, barley, ray, oat, etc.
    2. Powdered grains: flour, cornflower, grounded rice, arrowroot, etc.
    3.  Vegetables: potatoes, parsnips, peas, beans, etc.
    4. Fruit: bananas, apples, cooking pears, etc
    5. Cereals: cornflakes, shredded wheat
    6. Cooked starch: cokes, biscuits
    7.  Pastas: macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli
  3. Cellulose: It is the coarser structure of vegetables and cereals which is not digested but is used as roughage in the intestine. It is often referred to as dietary-fiber.

 

17. Explain the Types of Kitchen.

The division, specialization, type of a kitchen is based on the type, class, service and size of the establishment. The kitchens are known by different names as per their functions and style of management, such as:

  1. Cold kitchen: In this kitchen cold food such as cold salads, sandwich, etc. are prepared.
  2. Specialized Kitchen: These kitchens are known by the type of food they prepare like Italian, Chinese, Indian, Continental, Nepali. This kitchen prepares hot dishes.
  3. Fast-food Kitchen: In this kitchen food are pre-prepared or kept ready to be prepared so it will be possible to service very quickly. Temporary Kitchen are the moving or outdoor kitchen. Fixed or Permanent Kitchen are regular kitchen as in hotel and restaurant. Pastry / Bakery Kitchen where pastry and Bakery (ice-cream, cakes, breads, pies etc.) are prepared.

In terms of management kitchen is organized in three different ways:

  1. Central Kitchen is also known as conventional kitchen. This type of kitchen is usually located at the central part of hotel where overall sequences of receiving supply, storing preparing, cooking, serving and cleaning, etc. are managed. Technically this type of kitchen is known as the ‘main kitchen’. The supporting departments such as pastry, butcher, cold kitchen, store, stewarding are housed on the same level as the kitchen for easy accessibility. Wide varieties of food items are prepared in the same kitchen. This type of kitchen is usually feasible in a small establishment. Here staffs have the advantage of moving from one department to another by enabling a better staff relationship.
  2. Satellite Kitchen: In this type of kitchen management food is  pre -prepared separately in different kitchen. This type of kitchen is suitable for large and modern establishments with many outlets serving different types of foods. The focus here is to have each preparation department specializing in certain products, and usually serves pre- prepared items as fast food.
  3. Combined Preparation Kitchen: In this type of kitchen management of an different kitchen operating separately share the common kitchen. The satellite kitchens also may depend upon the main kitchen for various other things such as sauce, stocks, gravies, pastas, etc. This type of kitchen design and management is suitable for a medium size establishment.

18. Explain the Mineral and Water.

There are 19 different mineral elements. Most of these minerals are required in a very small quantity. Calcium, iron and iodine are the most common minerals.

Calcium and Phosphorus is required for building bones and teeth and clotting of blood. It is also required for the muscles to work. Calcium also plays a role in controlling heart beat and phosphorus controls the structure of the brain cells. The use of calcium depends on the presence of vitamin D. Infants, teenagers, expectant and nursing mothers need extra calcium. Extra or unnecessary calcium in the diet can cause stone formation in the kidneys. The sources of calcium are, Milk and milk products, the oily fish, green vegetables or leafy vegetables, liver, kidney, eggs, cheese, etc.

Iron is required for building the hemoglobin in blood. Haemoglobin catches oxygen and transports to the different parts of the body and brings carbon dioxide back. The haemoglobin in the blood should be maintained at a constant level. The certain body requires more iron at certain times than other, e.g. after the loss of blood, nursing women, children, etc. Iron is not contained in milk and milk products.

Iron is most easily absorbed from meat and its absorption is helped by the presence of vitamin C. Iron may also be present in drinking water and obtained from iron utensils in which food is prepared. The sources of iron are lean meat, offal, egg yolk, green vegetables, fish, etc.

Sodium is required in all body fluids and is found in salt. Salt is continually lost from the body in urine and while sweating. We must compensate the loss by intake. It is necessary to keep the water balance in cells. Main source of sodium is salt.

Iodine is required for the functioning of the thyroid gland which regulates the body development. Iodine is necessary for the formation of a hormone which helps to utilize body energy. Sources of iodine are seafood, vegetables grown near the sea, drinking water, iodized salt.

Every mineral plays very important role in human body functioning. It helps to absorb vitamins. Other minerals equally important for the human body are potassium, magnesium, sulpher and copper.

Water is required for body to add body fluids, metabolism, digestion, excretion, absorption and secretion. Water plays a vital part in regulating body temperature by evaporation of perspiration. Sources of water is kids have drinks, food, such as fruits and vegetables, meat, eggs that contain water.

 

19. What are the rules regarding personal hygiene and grooming? Explain.

Personal hygiene is very much important for a hospitality business specially working in the kitchen as it affects not only the individual person himself but the area surrounding him. The appearance of staff reflects the standard of the establishment in the eyes of the public. Self-respect is necessary in every food-handler because a pride in one’s appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness. Cleanliness itself starts with people and good personal hygiene habits. These factors will determine a major cause of potential contamination. Germs or bacteria are to be found in and on the body and they can be transferred on to anything with which they come in contact. Personal cleanliness is essential to prevent germs getting on to food. Persons suffering from ill health or who are not clean should not handle food.

  1. A kitchen staff must have clean hair, manicure finger nails, clean hands and feet and must ensure that no body or mouth odor is present.
  2.  Food handlers should take bath, regularly wash his hands properly after venturing to dirty areas, and maintain basic personal hygiene.
  3.  Should trim his hair properly, manicure nails and ladies are supposed to tie their hair neatly.
  4. Should not use strong perfume it may affect food. Should not use strong or too much make-up.
  5. Better not to use Bangles and jewellery or should be minimum.
  6. The dress worn should be neat and clean. If it is office uniform it should be maintained properly. The shoes also polished regularly.
  7. Cotton uniforms are preferred to other fabric as they are hazardous to fire.
  8. The office uniform or the dress used in kitchen should not be worn outside the premises as it may get dirty, bacteria and other infection.
  9. In case of cut or wound it should be properly covered with antiseptic tapes.
  10. Smoking is totally prohibited.
  11. Spitting should never be done, because germs can be spread by this objectionable habit.
  12. Foods should be tasted with a clean teaspoon. Never use hands and never reuse spoons.

20.  What are the points to be considered while planning a kitchen in the hotel? Explain.

Kitchen planning is a long term planning of hotel management. As compared to room and extra chair it is not easy to change. Consider following factors before planning kitchen.

  1. Type and varieties of food to be prepared
  2. Number of guest to be served at a time and  total in shift
  3. Type and class of establishment
  4. Style of service
  5. Type of equipment
  6. A kitchen should be
    1. Flexible: Always plan for flexibility and be able to serve extra service when it is necessary.
    2. Efficiency: The layout of the kitchen should increase the efficiency and increase the productivity of each staff.
    3. Access: The kitchen should be located in a way that it is not easily accessible for the guest but easy for service staff. It has access to store and other facilities.
    4. Hygiene: The kitchen should have proper ventilation, light and safe flooring, proper rainage system, etc.
    5.  Storing facility: A planned kitchen should have proper storing facilities. Raw materials, ready to cook and cooked food should be stored separately.
    6. Security: As a kitchen contains expensive equipment and materials, it should be protected from outsiders and from pets.
    7. Management: The kitchen lay out should support management, supervisions and control.
    8. Safety: The safety must be given top priority while planning a kitchen. A kitchen contains highly inflammable items. Plan sale floor, exit door, ventilation, safety calls, etc.
    9. Space: Proper allocation is space is another consideration. A hotel/restaurant space cost money so it must be managed most effectively. Unnecessary space cost money and difficult to clean.
    10. Right Equipment: This is the most important aspect of kitchen planning. The proper equipment increase efficiency and reduce cost. And ultimately increase the profitability of the business.
    11. Sufficient light: Both natural and artificial light is most essential to work in kitchen. Natural light is more hygienic and artificial light cost money. The artificial light should be undisturbed.
    12. Water Supply and Drainage System: A kitchen should be supported by regular water supply. At the same it must have proper drainage system.

The kitchen planning should be coordinate with F&B Service. Only well planned kitchen ensure smooth interaction and efficient workflow, optimum productivity and conductive working environment.


21. Explain the causes of food poisoning and its control measures.

Any food which is infected by bacteria, toxin, chemical substance and poison is termed to be contaminated food. Such food should be considered not fit for human consumption. People are more responsible to contaminate food with their hands, sneezing, coughing, so personal hygiene is most essential for protecting food from poisoning.

Cause of Food Poisoning

The most common cases of food poisoning are caused by bacteria. Since they are found everywhere food handlers should pay more attention to good personal hygiene. But some food poison is natural or due to nature of the chemical. Sometimes people eat poisonous plants unknowingly and get sick.

  1. Bacteria: The most common cases of food poisoning are caused by bacteria.
  2. Natural: Certain fish and plants are naturally poisonous such as mushrooms.
  3. Chemical: Chemical in water, cleaning materials, cause illness. The pesticides or poisons used in fruits, vegetables causes illness in human beings. The chemical colour used in traditional food preparation is also be harmful.
  4. Metallic: Lead, zink, copper pans should be correctly used and never used for storing food. As it can cause reaction of food and will be the reason of food poison. Mercury is another poisonous metal and should be handled very carefully.

Control Measures

  1. Raw food, particularly red meat and poultry get polluted most quickly. The special care must be taken to high-risk foods. Equal attention must be given to the equipment as contamination is transformed through pots and pans and through different types of equipment used in kitchen. Defrosted poultry and meat must not be allowed to be contaminated by wiping cloths, pots and pans.
  2. Dust and soil are the other source of contamination. Raw and prepared food must be well protected from dust. Soil on raw vegetable must be removed. The vegetable must be washed thoroughly. In many places even water we use are not up to the quality. It is better to add iodine or potash in the cleaning water or to dip the vegetable in the iodine or potash water for half an hour.
  3. Protect food from flies, cockroaches and other small insects as they are the sources of contamination.
  4. Regular inspection of slaughter houses.
  5.  Care in disposing of waste water and chlorinating of water.
  6. Proper thawing and cooking.
  7. Avoid drinking/serve raw milk, raw meat, fish and shellfish.
  8. Proper storage, cooking of “high risk” food.
  9. Avoid cross contamination. Do not mix cooked and un-cooked food. Separate raw and cooked food during preparation and storing.
  10. Check canes, date and if any damage.
  11. Practice high standard of hygiene.
  12. Use smaller joints of meat when cooking.
  13. Through cooking and rapid cooling.
  14. Store at appropriate temperature.
  15. Avoid handling cooked food with bare hands. Practice good personal hygiene.

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