### Very short Question and Answer

###### 1.  What is a technical view of group dynamics?

Groups have properties of their own that are different from the properties of the individuals who make up the group. The special properties of groups are illustrated by a simple lesson in mathematics. Suppose we say ‘one plus one equals three. In the world of mathematics is a logical error. But in the world of group dynamics, it is entirely rational to say ‘one plus one equals three. In a group, there is no such thing as only two people, for no two people can be considered without including their relationship, and that relationship is the third element in the equation.

###### 2. What is the internal nature view of group dynamics?

The internal nature view of group dynamics refers to how groups are formed, their structure, processes, and functioning as well as how the group affects individual members, other groups and the organization as a whole

###### 3. Define a virtual team.

A team that consists of members who are separated by distance and connected through a computer is termed a virtual team. Members of the virtual teams communicate with each other online through the internet.

###### 4. What do you mean by group?

A group is defined as two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. In other words, a group is the largest set of two or more individuals who are jointly characterized by a network of relevant communication, a shared sense of collective identity and one or more shared dispositions with associated normative strength.

###### 5. What are the important features of the group?

The primary features of the group are enlisted as follows:

• Collection of two or more people
• Common goal or interest
• Interaction and interdependent
• Collective identity
• A stable structure
• Group norm and value

###### 1. State the nature of the informal group and explain its significance of the informal group.

Nature and Significance of Informal Groups in Organization

Informal groups are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. It is based on personal interaction, sentiments, and social activities. It has members with common objectives or similar needs for social affiliation and friendship. It quickly adapts to environmental changes but resists change within the group.

Some of the key points that explain the significance of informal groups in an organization are explained briefly.

• Compensation for the low capacity manager’s ability: The manager may not be capable in all the fields. In the same, he may snag the ability. Especially, in planning and other decision making his snags (i.e. low capacity) can be compensated by his subordinates informally, if he has a good relationship with the informal group.
• Useful channel of communication: Communication through informal groups is faster than formal. Any information through the channel of informal groups spreads quickly. Thus the informal group proves to be a very useful channel for effective communication.
• Compel managers to plan and act cautiously: Informal groups induce the manager to plan and act cautiously because a weak plan and action are always undermined by the groups.
• Provides a sense of belongingness and security: Informal group provides satisfaction and stability to the work team to attain a sense of belongingness and security. A new employee will remain isolated until the group accepts him as a member. When the newcomer will be accepted as a group member he attains a sense of belongingness and security.
• Greater performance and supervision: Informal groups help get the jobs done or control performance. If the manager feels that his work team is cooperating with him, he has less need for checking frequently and confidently delegates and decentralizes the work. The informal group support leads to general supervision instead of close supervision, which enhances the productivity of the employees later on.
• Reduced frustration and allied employee: Informal groups are the safety valve for the frustration and allied employee because if any employee feels irritated with his superior’s behavior, he can talk it to his group members and can dissipate his unpleasant feelings.
###### 2. State the issues in group decision-making. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of group decision-making.

Issues Related to Group Decision Making

The major issues in group decision making are stated as follows:

• Issue of time constraints: As compared to individual decision making (IDM) more amount of time is required to informal arrange group meetings. And due and undue conflicts are very common in GDM as compared to IDM. The following statement is sufficient enough to describe this first issue. the
• Issue of group polarization (shift): It is yet a second issue that a group might have to face during the GDM process. In it a high level of deviation (shift/polarization) can be seen before during – and after – decisions are taken on a problem. Suppose (for example) a BBS college is facing the problem of tough competition, low fees, and poor results.
• Issue of groupthink: It is directly related to group norms (GDM rules). Groupthink describes the situation in which the group offers pressure on conformity. This activity ultimately discourages the members from critically evaluating: (a) unusual, (b) minority, or (c) unpopular views. It is an action (pressure) that ATTACKS many groups. It can dramatically harm their predominance (performance).
• The issue of (degree of) real participation: It is the next vital issue in GDM. It highlights how many degrees of participation should be and is really used in practice. In most cases, people/ members are physically involved. but not psychologically.
• The issue of cost vs. benefit: GDM has both cost and benefits. The issue here is how to bring trade-off or equalization. The issue here is how to minimize costs (expenses, time, back-fire/ rejection of decision outcomes, etc.) and optimize benefits (acceptance, better outcomes, motivation, etc.).
###### 3. Discuss the Strengths and Weaknesses of Group Decision Making

Individual and group decisions each have their own set of strengths and weaknesses.

Strengths

The strengths of group decision making are as follows:

• More complete information and knowledge: It is said that two heads are better than one. By accumulating the resources of several individuals, groups bring more input to the decision process. They can bring heterogeneity to the decision process than the single individual as well.
• Generates more alternatives: Because of the above advantages, groups can identify more alternatives than individual. This opens up the opportunity for more approaches and alternatives to be considered.
• Increased acceptance of a solution: The members involved in the group decision know the reality and facts behind the decision. So, they are more likely to accept it and are motivated to communicate it to their units/departments.

Weaknesses

The weaknesses of group decision making are as follows:

• Time-consuming: A lot of time is taken to arrange the group meeting. And conflicts are quite common in group decision-making as compared to individual decision-making.
• Minority domination: Group members differ in terms of their status (rank), knowledge, skills, experience, etc. Group discussion can be dominated by one or a few strong members. They can have more excessive influence than the majority of the group members.
• Pressures to conform: There are conformity pressures in groups. Group decisions may also represent undesirable compromises. It is also called groupthink. People do not accept the decision from the inside but they say ok from the outside which harms the decision quality.
###### 4. Define the group and explicate the reasons for joining groups.

Meaning of Group

Group is a collection of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular common objectives. A group is an aggregation of people who interact with each other, are aware of one another, have a common objective, and perceive to be a group.

A mere collection of people cannot constitute a group. For example, a crowd in front of a shop in the market watching will not be called a group because people do not interact with one another, do not know one another, and also do not share a common purpose.

Reason for People Forming and Joining Group

People form and become members of groups for a variety of different reasons. Some of them are explained below:

• Safety and security needs: Groups provide protection to their members from outside pressures. That is why workers join trade unions to feel safe and secure.
• Relatedness or belongingness needs: People being social belonging, relating to groups satisfies a number of their social needs. In every organization, there are many persons who are very isolated or who prefer to be absent from work most of the time. Studies show, that such phenomena occur more where people are unable to belong to groups.
• Esteem needs: When one’s a member of a group and does some good piece of work, gets praise from others. This in turn, brings a sense of recognition to the group member, on the one hand, and also a sense of fulfillment of one’s need for growth towards the higher achievement of work and better career prospects, on the other side.
• Power: One of the appealing aspects of groups is that they represent power and also offer power to their members. Workers enjoy much greater power by joining groups than they do as individuals. This is because of at least two reasons: (i) There is strength in numbers, and (ii) United we stand, divide we fall.
• Identity: As a member of a group, an individual gets an identity who am I? In practice, we understand ourselves through the behavior of others towards us. For example, when others- praise us, we feel we are great, if others laugh at us, we see ourselves as funny ones.
###### 5. Explain the nature and significance of informal groups.

Nature and Significance of Informal Groups in Organization

Informal groups are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. It is based on personal interaction, sentiments, and social activities. It has members with common objectives or similar needs for social affiliation and friendship. It quickly adapts to environmental changes but resists change within the group.

Some of the key points that explain the significance of informal groups in an organization are explained briefly:

• Compensation for the low capacity manager’s ability: The manager may not be capable in all the fields. In the same, he may snag the ability. Especially, in planning and other decision making his snags (i.e. low capacity) can be compensated by his subordinates informally, if he has a good relationship with the informal group.
• Useful channel of communication: Communication through informal groups is faster than formal. Any information through the channel of informal groups spreads quickly. Thus the informal group proves to be a very useful channel for effective communication.
• Compel managers to plan and act cautiously: Informal groups induce the manager to plan and act cautiously because a weak plan and action are always undermined by the groups.
• Provides a sense of belongingness and security: Informal group provides satisfaction and stability to the work team to attain a sense of belongingness and security. A new employee will remain isolated until the group accepts him as a member. When the newcomer will be accepted as a group member he attains a sense of belongingness and security.
• Greater performance and supervision: Informal groups help get the jobs done or control performance. If the manager feels that his work team is cooperating with him, he has less need for checking frequently and confidently delegates and decentralizes the work. The informal group support leads to general supervision instead of close supervision, which enhances the productivity of the employees later on.
• Reduced frustration and allied employee: Informal groups are the safety valve for the frustration and allied employee because if any employee feels irritated with his superior’s behavior, he can talk it to his group members and can dissipate his unpleasant feelings.
###### 6. What are the stages of group development? Describe with a suitable example.

Stages of Group Development

The most widely accepted stages of group development are explained below:

Stage I– Forming

Stage II– Storming

Stage III– Norming

Stage IV– Performing

• Forming stages: The first stage for almost every group is the orientation stage. This stage is marked by a great deal of caution, confusion, courtesy, and uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. The formal leader exerts a great influence in structuring the group and shaping member expectations. This stage is complete when members of the group have begun to think of themselves as part of a group.
• Storming stage: This stage is characterized by conflict, confrontation, concern, and criticism. Struggles for individual power and influences are common. In case, the conflict becomes extremely intense and dysfunctional, the group may dissolve or continue as an ineffective group that never advances to higher levels of group maturity.
• Norming stage: This is the stage in which close relationship among the members develops. The group develops cohesiveness. The group now assumes to certain identity and camaraderie.
• Performing stage: This is the highest level of group maturity. This state is marked by teamwork, role clarity, and task accomplishment. Conflict is identified and resolved through group discussion. The members of the group are aware of the group’s processes and the extent of their own involvement in the group.
• Adjourning stage: This stage is recognized as the last stage of the group i.e. completing every task and the group will be automatically adjourned. Groups are adjourned for two reasons. First, the group has completed its task. Second, the members decide to disband and close the group with a sentimental feeling

###### 1. Why should managers be aware of the informal group? Describe the element of group cohesiveness.

Reasons for Awareness of Informal Groups

A manager should be aware of the informal groups in regards to both positive and negative aspects. The rational manager should always focus on the negative side than the positive because the negative aspects of informal groups are more dangerous and create problems to the entire organization.

Some of the key reasons that highlight the necessity of being aware of the informal group are listed below.

• Informal groups can have unfair views of the management. Unnecessary politics may arise in the organization.
• Informal groups may end at any time.
• Informal groups may not have the best leadership to energize and synergize work efficiency.
• Informal groups can create ethical confusion in the organization as views are interacted to produce contrasting views.
• Informal groups sometimes are translated into organizational activities.

Element of Group Cohesiveness

Group cohesion means the degree to which the group members are attracted to each other and remain within the group. It is usually reflected by its resiliency to disruption by outside forces. Group cohesion develops out of the activities, interactions, and sentiments of the members. The key elements of group cohesiveness are explained briefly.

• Group size: One of the important and necessary conditions for the existence of the group is that members interact and communicate with each other. If the group is so large that members do not get to know each other, there is little likelihood that the group will be high in cohesiveness. This is a logical assumption that would be made by those who understand the difficulties of communicating in large groups. Research studies have found that an inverse relationship does not exist between the size of the group and the group cohesion. As the size of a group increases, its cohesiveness decreases.
• Member similarity: The degree of cohesiveness will be high when group members are similar in age, background, and values. In other words, homogeneous groups will be more cohesive than heterogeneous groups. It is because of more trust and less conflict among the group members with homogeneous characters.
• Member interaction: when member interacts frequently, there trends to be more group of cohesive because they got a chance to share ideas and views in order to avoid the situation of misunderstanding and conflict.
• Groups success: A successful group tends to be more cohesive than a group with repetitive failure records. Group members of the succession group believe that, because of their successive records in the past, they will remain successful in the future too.
###### 2. Explain the concept of the self-managed work team and discuss the major issues in managing work teams.

Self-managed Work Team

Self-managed work team refers to a self-organized, semi-autonomous small group of employees whose members determine, plan and manage their day-to-day activities and duties under reduced or no supervision. Self-managed work teams are primarily based on work processes rather than specialized departments as core work units. Typically, self-managed teams are groups of 10-15 employees who perform related or interdependent jobs. They select their own members and evaluate each other’s performance. It increases productivity and satisfaction. However, the effectiveness of self-managed teams is dependent on the situation. They have reduced the importance of the supervisor position. Due to this reason, many companies in U.S. Europe, and Japan are putting in their effort to develop self-managed teams in their organizations.

Major Issues in Managing Work Teams

The major issues that need to be addressed in managing a work team are explained below.

• Facilitate the adoption of TQM: The TQM requires encouragement to employees by management to share ideas and implement improvements. The team provides the vehicle for employees to share ideas and implement improvements. The issue is how to make the work teams effective for quality problem solving, especially in terms of size, ability, resources, mobilization, etc.
• Workforce diversity on team performance: The strongest case for diversity in work teams is when these teams are engaged in problem-solving and decision-making tasks. Diverse groups have more difficulty working together and solving the problem but this dissipates with time.
• Increasing team effectiveness: An important issue is how to increase and maintain team effectiveness. For this, the following things should be taken into consideration. Prepare members to deal with the problem of maturity- remind them that they are not unique. Offer refresher training, Offer advanced training, and Encourage the team to treat their development as a constant learning experience.
###### 3. Elucidate the concept of group dynamics and state how group norms are developed and enforced.

Concept of Group Dynamics

The social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics. The word ‘dynamics’ comes from the Greek word meaning ‘force’, hence group dynamics refers to the study of forces operating within a group. Two important historical landmarks in our understanding of small groups are the research of Elton Mayo and his associates in the 1920s and 1930s and the experiments in the 1930s of Kurt Lewin, the founder of the group dynamics movement. Mayo showed that workers tend to establish informal groups that affect job satisfaction and effectiveness. Lewin showed that different kinds of leadership produced different responses in groups.

Groups have properties of their own that are different from the properties of the individuals who make the up group. of The special properties groups are illustrated by a simple lesson in mathematics. Suppose we say ‘one plus one equals three.’ In the world of mathematics that is a logical error. But in the world of group dynamics, it is entirely rational to say ‘one plus one equals three’. In a group, there is no such thing as only two people, for no two people can be considered without including their relationship, and that relationship is the third element in the equation.

Development and Enforcement of Group Norms Group norms are the standards of behavior. In other words, a group’s norm is a rule that tells the individual how to behave in a particular group. Thus, group norms identify the standards against which the behavior of group members will be evaluated and help the group members know what they should or should not do. Norms could be formal or could be informal.

According to Schein, there are pivotal and relevant group norms while the pivotal norms are confirmed by every member of the group, the relevant norms are desirable to be confirmed by the members. With the increase in the size of the group, the acceptability of norms tends to lessen. A small deviation of norms is allowable. However, in case of extreme deviation, the deviator gets punished. For example, when the union is on strike if its member attending work is punished by being boycotted by the group. Hence, norms serve as the basis for behaviour of group members. They predict and control the behavior of members in groups.